Tuesday, January 28, 2020


Motivation Why are there multiple theories of motivation in organisational behaviour? Firstly I believe that we need to understand what motivation is before we can understand why there are lots of motivational theories. ‘Motivation comes from the Latin word movere, meaning ‘to move (kreitner R., kinicki A., Buelens M., 2002, p: 176) which means as fact, need, emotion and organic state which encourages a person to take an action. A persons performance at work is affected by several individual factors (Personality, attitudes and beliefs, motivation, perception) but in particular, by Motivation. The dictionary defines motivation as â€Å"the reason why somebody does something or behaves in a particular way† (Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English, 2000, p1128). Many theorists over the years starting from the industrial revolution have analysed what makes workers work harder. This essay will illustrate why there are multiple theories of motivation I will be looking at two theories Maslows hierarchy and Hertzbergs two factor theories to try to determine why there is a need to have so many theories of motivation. Many organisations face difficulties when trying to motivate their staff. If the employees are motivated the company is likely to be more successful. To be able to understand motivation and the way it works, we have to understand human nature itself, managers also need to understand the work effort motivation cycle as to not loose there staff to more exciting rewarding and satisfying roles else were.( French, R., et al, 2008, Organizational Behaviour p157) There has to be effective management and leadership to motivate staff. Many companies believe that pay is the prime motivator; however people may want to exceed, receive acknowledgment for there efforts, they may want to feel a part of a group and also want to feel a heightened sense of worth at the workplace. This is where empowerment plays a very important part in a companys progression. ( French, R., et al, 2008, Organizational Behaviour. p 156) â€Å"Empowerment is the process by which managers delegate power to employees to motivate greater responsibility in balancing the achievement of both personal and organisational goals†. (Ref.- Chapter 4: Motivation and Empowerment page 184French, R. ,et al, 2008, Organizational Behaviour. Chichester: Wiley) By empowering employees this will make the staff more satisfied, productive and motivated throughout their working hours. Throughout the years many theorists have tried to explain what motivation is by designing theories describing how managers should stimulate their staff. (French, R. et al.,2008, Organizational Behaviour pp157-159) There are two main types of motivation theories content and process theories, the content theories look at the needs that individuals have, it includes 4 component theories: Maslows hierarchy of needs model, Alderfers modified need hierarchy model, McClellands achievement motivation theory and Herzbergs two-factor theories. The Process Theories are a understanding of the thought process that influence behaviour. The major process theories of motivation include Vrooms expectancy theory, goal-setting theory, and reinforcement theory and Adams equity theory. (French, R et al, 2008 Organizational Behaviour p160) Abraham Maslow has a structure which he has called the hierarchy of needs. There are five basic needs, which people are supposed to uphold. These are physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization. (French, R et al, 2008 Organizational Behaviour p161) Physiological needs are food, drink, shelter and sex, Safety needs are the security and protection from physical and emotional harm. Social needs refer to a need for love. That means a person will strive for good relationships with people and a place within there group. .(Wilson, F M(2004) Organizational Behaviour and work) The needs that Maslow has at the bottom of the pyramid are based on basic needs concerned with survival or lower order needs, and these must be satisfied before a person can go to the next level on the hierarchy of needs until self actualization which Maslow argued that although everybody is able to, not many reach this level. (Wilson, F M (2004) Organizational Behaviour and work) While Maslows theory seems to make sense at first, there is little to show that a strict hierarchy works in every day working life. In fact research contradicts the order of needs because in some cultures they tend to put social needs before any other need. Maslows hierarchy also has trouble explaining cases such as the â€Å"starving artist† where a individual will neglect there physical needs to gain a spiritual need. Maslow also suggests that one need is satisfied at a time where there is no evidence this is true. In all motivation theories there are always advantages and disadvantages, Maslow has been critical of his theory himself, in a statement he said: â€Å"My motivation theory was published 20 years ago and in all that time nobody repeated it, or tested, or really analyzed it or criticised it. They just used it, swallowed it whole with only the minor modification† Ref- Wilson, F.M (2004). Organisational behaviour and work. Oxford University press, page146 (Lowry 1982:6 Clayton Alderfer proposed the ERG theory, which is very similar to Maslows theory, it also describes needs as a hierarchy. The letters ERG stand for three levels of needs: Existence, Relatedness, and Growth. This theory is based on the work of Maslow, so it has a lot which is similar with it but it also differs in some important aspects. He argues that Maslows theory is not flexible and as a result of this people may become frustrated as they are not able to move to the next stage. Alderfer has minimized Maslows 5 level theories into 3 levels; this theory is more flexible as people are able to go up and down the hierarchy if their needs keep changing. (French, R et al, 2008 Organizational Behaviour p160) Fredrick Herzbergs hygiene-motivation theory, Frederick Hertzberg put forward the idea that certain factors in the workplace cause job satisfaction, while others lead to dissatisfaction, he proposed the Two Factor theory of human motivation in the workplace, he believed that man has two sets of needs one as an animal to avoid pain and the second as a human being to grow psychologically. Hertzberg believes that the growth or the motivator factors such as achievement, the work its self, responsibility and advancement are the primary cause of job satisfaction. Hygiene factors the dissatisfiers using the term hygiene are considered maintenance factors that are to avoid dissatisfaction but by themselves do not provide satisfaction company policy, administration, supervision interpersonal relationships, working conditions salary status and security. Hertzberg used two open ended questions ‘tell me about a time when you felt exceptionally good about your job. and ‘tell me about a time when you felt exceptionally bad about your job.Herzberg analysed a diverse range of employees twelve different investigations informed the theory.( Herzberg et al 1959,. Wilson, F M(2004) Organizational Behaviour and work) There have been many criticisms of this theory one being some researchers have used other methods and have not been able to confirm the theory there for the theory is said to be method-bound as only Hertzbergs original method is able to support the theory. Other critics found it to be too convenient that Hertzbergs theory fits so neatly into two boxes, intrinsic contributing to job satisfaction and extrinsic to dissatisfaction. In the study by Ewan (1963) found that sometimes the hygiene factor, dissatisfies acted as satisfiers and satisfiers, motivators caused both satisfaction and dissatisfaction. (Wilson, F M(2004) Organizational Behaviour and work) Looking briefly at the most well known motivational theories David McClelland Need for Achievement Theory proposed that an individuals specific needs are acquired over time and are shaped by a persons life experiences. Most of the needs can be classed as achievement, affiliation, or power. A persons motivation in a certain job is influenced by these three needs. McCelland believed that having the right resources available such as raw materials, time, having the right skills to do the job and also having the necessary support to get the job done like supervisor support, or correct information on the job, McCelland believed that even if two of the three were met that there would still not be positive motivation and all three must be met to achieve positive motivation. (French, R et al, 2008 Organizational Behaviour pp163- 165) The expectancy theory of motivation is by Victor Vroom. Victor Vroom is very different to Maslow and Hertzberg, Vroom focuses on outcomes not on needs. Expectancy is the belief that more effort will lead to better performance. (French, R et al, 2008 Organizational Behaviour pp172- 174) Looking closely at the theories of motivation I believe that there are multiple theories of motivation as there is neither a right or wrong theory all seem to out line the basics of motivation weather it is in a hierarchy or set in two boxes we all have a need for the basics in life plus achievement, recognition and we all would be happier and more motivated to work in better conditions, I believe that a person has each one of these needs at or maybe many at a time so there for many theories are essential to get a wider knowledge of motivation and how to motivate an individual at work.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Why We Are Lonely :: essays research papers

Intolerance is human nature; people who are different from or weaker than the norm are victims of intolerance and become isolated and lonely. Those who are in the norm are expected to be strong and not show their feelings. In Of Mice And Men, by John Steinbeck, the social power group is the white, male workers on the farm. They are younger men, still useful, reasonably intelligent, and average-sized. They exclude people who do not fit their norm, such as Curley for being short, Lennie for being retarded, Candy for being old, Crooks for being black, and Curley's wife for being a woman. Between themselves, they expect strength, distance and independence, and are uncomfortable with emotions. This intolerance and isolation cause loneliness for all the characters in this novel. This social power group oppresses and isolates Curley, Lennie and Candy because they are different, even though they are white. Lennie is very strong and big but his mind is like a child's, so the men don't respect him as an equal. For example, George explains to Slim that he, "Used to play jokes on [Lennie] cause he was too dumb to take care of 'imself"(p. 40). Lennie does not take part in the activities the workers do in their spare time. Lennie does not go to town with the men. In Weed, Lennie gets in trouble because the people don't understand his problem. They react with anger instead of understanding. George explains to Slim, "Cause he ain't mean....like what happened in Weed-"(p. 40). Candy is afraid that he will have nowhere to go soon because he is old: "I won't have no place to go, an' I can't get no jobs." (p. 60) Candy knows that society doesn't value or care about people who can't work. Society ejects them because they are no longer useful. Carlson shows this when he says about Candy's dog, " He ain't no good to you, Candy. An' he ain't no good himself. Why'n't you shoot him, Candy? (p. 44). Candy knows he is like his dog; an old man is almost useless. He knows how they will discard them he's no longer useful: "They says he wasn't no good to himself nor nobody else. When they can me here I wish't somebody shoot me." (p. 60) Curley feels excluded from society because he is too short. He hates big men because big men automatically get into the social power group. Candy comments to George that "Curley's like a lot of little guys. He hates big guys. He's alla time picking scraps with big guys.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Alliance: Cold War Essay

ORIGINS OF COLD WAR ESSAY REVIEW Relevant IB Objectives 1. Origins of the Cold War a. Ideological differences b. Mutual suspicion and fear c. From wartime allies to post-war enemies 2. Nature of the Cold War a. Ideological opposition b. Superpowers and spheres of influence c. Alliances and diplomacy in the Cold War 3. Development and impact of the Cold War a. Role and significance of leaders b. Social, cultural, and economic impact 4. Material for detailed study †¢ Wartime conferences: Yalta and Potsdam US policies and developments in Europe: Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, NATO †¢ Soviet policies, Sovietization of Eastern and Central Europe, COMECON †¢ Germany (especially Berlin (1945? 61)), Korea †¢ Stalin, Truman Past Essay Questions I. Origins of Cold War 1. ‘Ideological differences played little part in the origin of the Cold War. ’ How far do you agree with this judgment? (2000) 2. Assess the part played by differing ideologies in the origin of the Cold War. (2005) 3. â€Å"The Cold War was caused by fear, not aggression. To what extent does this view explain how the Cold War developed between 1945 and 1949? (2001) 4. To what extent did events in the final year of the Second World War turn wartime allies into Cold War enemies? (2004) 5. â€Å"An unnatural alliance that was bound to fall apart after the defeat of the common enemy. † To what extent does this statement explain the origin of the Cold War? (2006) 6. Analyse the origin of East-West rivalry and explain why it developed into the Cold War. (2008) I. Nature of Cold War 1. Assess the part played by differing ideologies in the origin of the Cold War. 2005) 2. Define ‘superpower rivalry’ and assess its importance in international politics since 1945. (2000) 3. In what ways, and for what reasons, did super-power rivalry dominate international politics between 1945 and 1961? (2002) 4. Analyse the origin of East-West rivalry and explain why it develop ed into the Cold War. (2008) 5. Also: the role and impact of alliances and diplomacy in the Cold War II. Development and impact 1. For what reasons, and with what effects, did social and cultural differences affect the origin and development of the Cold War? 2002) 2. Also: role and significance of Truman and/ or Stalin III. Material for detailed study 1. How, and to what extent, did the conferences at Yalta and Potsdam (1945) contribute to the origin of the Cold War? (2003) 2. For what reasons, and with what results, were there disagreements between participants at the conferences of Yalta and Potsdam in 1945? (2009) 3. For what reasons, and with what results, did the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan affect Cold War development? (2008) 4.To what extent was Germany the cause of East/West disagreements between 1943 and 1963? (2000) 5. Analyze the role of Germany in the origin and development of the Cold War. (2002) 6. In what ways, and with what results, was Germany the key focus of the early stages of the Cold War? (2005) 7. Compare and contrast the policies of the USA and the USSR towards Korea between 1945 and 1955. (2004) 8. Also: NATO, Soviet policies, Sovietization of Central and Eastern Europe, COMECON, Stalin, Truman

Friday, January 3, 2020

What Is Identity Theft Definition, Laws, and Prevention

Identity theft is the illegal use of someone’s personal information for individual gain. Also known as identity fraud, this type of theft can cost a victim time and money. Identity thieves target information like names, dates of birth, drivers licenses, social security cards, insurance cards, credit cards, and bank information. They use the stolen information to gain access to existing accounts and open new accounts. Identity theft is on the rise. The Federal Trade Commission received over 440,000 reports of identity theft in 2018, 70,000 more than in 2017. A study conducted by an independent advisory firm found that  16.7 million people in the U.S. were victims of identity theft in 2017, an 8% increase from the previous year. The financial losses totaled over $16.8 billion. Key Takeaways: Identity Theft Identity theft, also known as identity fraud, is when someone steals personal information to use for their own benefit, typically financial gain.Identity theft covers multiple types of fraud including bank fraud, medical fraud, credit card fraud, and utility fraud.If someone has been the victim of identity theft, they should report it immediately to the Federal Trade Commission, local law enforcement, and the companies where the fraud occurred.Protections against identity theft include strong passwords, shredders, frequent credit reports, and suspicious activity alerts. Identity Theft Definition Identity theft covers a range of  fraudulent  acts. Some common types of identity theft include credit card fraud, phone and utility fraud, insurance fraud, bank fraud, government benefits fraud, and medical fraud. An identity thief might open an account in someone’s name, file taxes on their behalf to receive the refund, or use their credit card number to make online purchases. Stolen bank account information might be used to pay utilities or phone bills. In addition, an identity thief could use stolen insurance information to access medical care. In very rare and serious circumstances, an identity thief might use someone  else’s name in a criminal proceeding. Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act and Legal Implications Before the Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act of 1998, identity thieves were prosecuted for specific crimes like stealing mail or producing fake replicas of government documents. The Act made identity theft a separate federal crime and gave it a broad definition. According to the act, an identity thief knowingly transfers or uses, without lawful authority, a means of identification of another person with the intent to commit, or to aid or abet, any unlawful activity that constitutes a violation of Federal law, or that constitutes a felony under any applicable State or local law. Outside of defining identity theft, the Act also gave the Federal Trade Commission the ability to monitor complaints and offer resources to victims of identity theft. In federal courts, identity theft is punishable by up to 15 years in prison or $250,000 in fines. Financial Consequences for the Victim Identity theft can have financial consequences for the victim. The cost to the victim depends on when the crime is reported and how it occurred. States generally do not hold a victim responsible for charges made to a new account opened in their name  without their knowledge. States also limit the amount of money someone can lose if fraudulent checks are issued on their behalf. The federal government protects victims of credit card theft by limiting the cost of unauthorized use to $50. If someone notices their credit card has been stolen but no charges have been made, reporting it to the proper  authorities will waive the cost of any future unauthorized charges. Debit cards have different standards that depend on timing. If someone notices their debit card is missing and notifies their bank immediately, before any charges are made, they are not liable for future fraudulent charges on that card. If they report unauthorized use within two days, their maximum loss is $50. If they wait more than two days but no longer than 60 days after receiving their bank statement, they are responsible for up to $500 in charges. Waiting for more than 60 days can result in unlimited liability. How to Report Identity Theft There are multiple ways to take action if you suspect private information related to your identity has been compromised. Document the theft. This means keeping track of when and where you last used your debit or credit card. Document fraudulent charges. If you receive a bill for a medical service or a credit card you don’t own, do not discard it.Contact your bank for financial fraud. Freeze your accounts as soon as you believe they have been compromised. A bank may place an alert on your account and send you a new card if yours has been stolen.Contact offices related to accounts opened illegally in your name. Let the office know that your name has been used to open an unauthorized account and follow the designated  procedure.Notify credit reporting companies. Every victim is entitled to an initial 90-day  fraud alert that requires companies  using your credit report to take extra precautions verifying anyone applying for new credit with your information. There are three national credit bureaus: Experian, Equifax, and Transunion. You can notify any individual bureau and they will notify oth ers.Create an identity theft report. You will need to fill out a complaint, affidavit, and report for local law enforcement. The FTC  has an identity theft website devoted to walking victims through these steps. Other reporting tactics include seven-year extended fraud alerts, requesting copies of your credit report, and blocking fraudulent information from appearing on your credit report. Identity Theft Protection There are many ways for identity thieves to get hold of personal information, but certain safeguards may help keep your personal information safe.   Keep your cards in a secure location.Use strong passwords and two-factor identification when possible while using online accounts.Don’t use the same password for every account.Check your credit score and credit reports frequently.Don’t enter your bank information or credit card number on sites that you do not recognize.Use shredders to destroy personal documents.Set up  Ã¢â‚¬Å"suspicious activity†Ã‚  alerts on your bank accounts. Sources Statement of Rights for Identity Theft Victims, The Federal Trade Commission. www.ovc.gov/pdftxt/IDTrightsbooklet.pdfâ€Å"Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act.†Ã‚  Federal Trade Commission, 12 Aug. 2013, www.ftc.gov/node/119459#003.â€Å"Identity Fraud Hits All Time High With 16.7 Million U.S. Victims in 2017, According to New Javelin Strategy Research Study.†Ã‚  Javelin Strategy Research, www.javelinstrategy.com/press-release/identity-fraud-hits-all-time-high-167-million-us-victims-2017-according-new-javelin.â€Å"Consumer Sentinel Network Data Book 2018.†Ã‚  Federal Trade Commission, 11 Mar. 2019, www.ftc.gov/reports/consumer-sentinel-network-data-book-2018.â€Å"Identity Theft.†Ã‚  The United States Department of Justice, 7 Feb. 2017, www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/identity-theft/identity-theft-and-identity-fraud.OConnell, Brian. â€Å"How to Protect Yourself from Identity Theft.†Ã‚  Experian, 18 June 2018, www.experian.com/blogs/ask-e xperian/how-to-protect-yourself-from-identity-theft/.