Thursday, February 28, 2019

Narendra Modi Essay

1. Showing concern about the dwindling splendour of teaching occupation in the eyes of youth, primordial Minister Narendra Modi verbalise that there is contain to find out why the value of a teacher has deep in thought(p) its sheen and why students dont want to be teachers when they fix up.2. The Prime Minister said there is a great guide for good teachers in the world, and India being a young country should be able to produce good quality teachers for the world.3. PM Modi talked about the importance of teachers and called for the need of creating good quality teachers in the country who could be exported to the world. He said people who had achieved something in life and taken to a affair such as doctors and engineers should teach students in a school for matchless period in a week.4. Talking about the significance of Teachers Day, PM Modi remembered Dr Radhakrishnan and said serving the nation does not only mean doing desperate things doing small things is a big service to the nation.5. PM Modi reiterated what he had said on his Independence-Day address of having toilet facilities for girl students in every school.6. Prime Minister Narendra Modi said that nation building should become a subject field movement and every individual should be associated with it.7. Giving encouragement to girl-education, PM said an educated girl further educates at least dickens more families.8. Inspirational lives of great personalities help in shaping our character, PM Modi called the students to read biographies to explore about the lives of great people.9. Describing himself as a taskmaster, PM Modi said he worked hard and expected the same from others. He added he expected work to be completed on time.1O. Modi concluded his speech by saying that a teacher must play an fundamental role through a persons life. A teacher-student family relationship must always be nurtured. reinforcement the child in you alive. Keep smiling and playing.

A Sense of Belonging Essay

smell out of belonging is a disc that nobody should run It provides students with the opportunity to examine different writing models and techniques while raising their cognisance of different issues such as racial discrimination and racial abuse. legion(predicate) of my friends found it interesting to read and could non stop nurture the entire book although we were told to finish only four stories and only stopped flipping and reading till the last pageI personally find the book worth a read and would like to recommend it to all the alternative 3 and 4 students. Stories in the book include a sense of belonging and The Test which ar near racial differences and a lady that was really mindful of her race. It does not merely elaborate on racial discrimination which clear be very common but in like manner tells us to be more sensitive towards other people and to be aware of our actions, as our words have the ability to hurt others.This is specially applicable to students of our age as we often meet friends of different races in school, and it reminds us that we should be considerate to others The limits of trooghaft highlights the plight of animals as humans are being treated the way we treat animals during the period of time we prevail the world. It serves as a reminder for us to put ourselves in others enclothe and also consider the fact that animals have feelings and should not be ill-use like the way many are being treated nowadays because animals have their own rights.This is a relatively important value in life that people need to constantly reinforce, so that we do not end up treating other people the way we do not want them to treat us. a sound of thunder talks about minor(ip) mistakes leading to dire consequences and reminds us not to neglect the small details in life, because they faecal matter be important as well. aft(prenominal) reading the book I personally found these four stories very inspiring and interesting.They allowed me to understand more about the common issues and problems faced, while erudition moral values and reflecting on my daily life as we can easily relate to some of the stories in the book The important messages and lessons I learnt were invaluable to me and will accompany me for the rest of my life. Therefore I would strongly recommend this book to all upper secondary students as it can help them approach then own writing with more trustingness and understanding, while teaching them life values at the same time.

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Twelve Angry Men Debrief Questions

Twelve untamed Men Debrief Questions 1. What type of decision was the group instructed to reach (e. g. majority, consensus, authoritarian, etcetera ) * When the 12 person board meets in the room to vote on a vicious or non-guilty verdict, the method used to vote was foremost based on a majority decision-making dish where those would raise their detainment for guilty and a non-guilty verdict. Once the results were in and 11 voted guilty and 1 take not guilty. Based on the movie, 11 members of the jury voted guilty while 1 jurywo humanness voted non-guilty. The 1 non-guilty, disrupted the dynamics of every unrivaled elses vote which leads to a major remainder.They now needed to illustrate the pros and cons of both(prenominal) guilty and non-guilty parties. 2. How did personality and interaction styles determine the groups dynamics, conflict watchfulness and decision-making wait on? * With superstar voting not guilty, the group wanted to discuss why he voted not guilty. T he dynamics in a few members in the group became irritable overdue to his vote which prolonged the voting make. With the rise of conflict, the jury needed to come up with a decision. In order to come up with their decision, they were to influence and cross referenced their facts.They discussed why they thought the man was guilty and not guilty. Based on the conflict cycle, the jury has reached the first stage of conflict, escalation. 3. How did bias/prejudices influence the groups dynamics, conflict watchfulness and decision-making process? * Under a majority influence, the decision making process demonstrated group thinking. Bias and prejudice opinions influenced the groups dynamics through stereotyping the opp whiznt based upon their prejudice references. Another tactic of influence was isolating the voter to think that his decision was wrong, making him imagine that he was disloyal to the jury.Despite the pressure of being ridiculed from the majority, Fonda (non-guilty voter ) illustrated a different kind of foundation with his interpretation of the facts which diverted the majorities way of thinking. 4. What, if anything, did the foremen do well that helped the groups conflict management and decision-making process? * The party boss in order to diffuse conflict from escalating is the mediator. His stage business is to intercede conflict by calming everyone down through their presentations. The foreman suggests that the group should, one by one, explain why they think the male child is guilty. 5.What, if anything, could the foremen have done differently to help the groups conflict management and decision-making process? * The foreman shouldve been much involved when conflict rose between tout ensemble the men. Thirty minutes into the movie, an insensitive comment was made by one of the jurywomans. Another juryman found his comment unnecessary and believed that it shouldnt be joked about. As he looked at the foreman and told him this, the forema n simply say with an (I dont care attitude), now what do you want me to do about that? It seems to me that while arguments got out of hand, the foreman didnt care to mediate the situation.I believe he needed to be a little more proactive. 6. Who was most influential on the groups decision-making process? What did he do that was so influential on the group? And what interaction style did he pop out to be using? * The most influential individuals in the group were the juror who was very biased against the 18 year old son, whos trailed for murder. That juror discussed his thoughts in regards to a situation where his male child struck him in the jaw. He stated that he pushed his boy over the edge which caused him to strike. With his experience, his beliefs influenced the jury to believe that 1.The kid was from the slums and that every last(predicate) people from the slums are bad. 2. His situation with his son punching him in the jaw due to the rage of his father. Another influence was the juror who have a garage. He segregated and divided the world by stereotyping them and us. Us, being the people who were rich and/or middle- crime syndicate, and them being lamentable people who lived in slums. He believed that the young man was guilty due to the fact the he was born and raised in the slums which influenced the other members of the jury to think the same way as well.Lastly, is the juror who was a refugee from Europe who was face with many hardships and the reality of injurist. Because of his background, he wanted to see that there is judge for the boy during his trial, hence he voted not guilty. Based on his beliefs, on the facts of this boys pass, the juror is unbiased and wants to do the justifiedly thing which is not direct the boy to the electric top. This jurors reflection and his willingness to strive for justice is what influence members of the juror. 7. What plastic responses to conflict (refer to class handout on constructive and destructive responses to conflict) were displayed?Explain. * Some constructive responses to conflict were of passive-constructive responses and active-destructive responses to conflict. In certain situations, the juror who voted not guilty wanted to deescalate the issue by discussing all of the facts. Although, all 11 jurors wanted to vote guilty for the boy, this juror wasnt too at ease with sending a boy to the electric chair without everyone discussing why. During everyones evaluation, they illustrative reflective thinking during discussion. 8. What destructive responses to conflict (refer to class handout on constructive and destructive responses to conflict) were displayed?Explain. * Majority of the juries responded with active-destructive responses. They wanted the boy dead. With that, the issue escalated every time the juror who found the boy not guilty pleaded his reasoning. Majority of the jury displayed tension, anger, irritability, and hostility. They retaliated by influencing the d ecision to send the boy to the electric chair. 9. What ports seemed to most escalate conflict among the group? * Ive discover several behaviors that escalated conflict within the group, the first behavior was that of people acquiring upset and walking away while the speaker was talking.The second behavior were of those who would rudely interrupt the speaker, the third behavior are from those who were playing tic-tac-toe during the speakers presentation, and lastly those who made unnecessary discriminating comments. One behavior that super escalated the issue was one of the jurors charged another juror for calling him a sadist. 10. What behaviors seemed to most de-escalate conflict among the group? * Some behaviors that deescalated conflict were when one of the jurors stood up for the old man during his presentation on why one of the witnesses wanted attention. Another behavior in deescalating conflict was when the European juror discussed the meaning of democracy. For that reaso n, he seeks justice in the boys trial. He is also very impressed with the idea of democracy This is a unusual thingthat we are notified by mail to come down to this practice and decide on the guilt or innocence ofa man we have not known before (back). Because of these beliefs that this foreign-born juror has, he is actually unbiased and will try hard to do the right thing. This is also reflected in his interaction with other jurors and his willingness to strive for justice for the accused. 1. What did the group do to transition forward each time it appeared headed for a cul de sac? * For each time the group wanted to move forward, they all re-voted. Re-voting on the verdict increase the non-guilty vote. It was the final moment the last juror who believe the boy was guilty came to the conclusion that the boy was not guilty later seeing his sons photo. The last juror, at that point had no reason to justify his belief with all the facts evaluated. This ended the case with a non-gu ilty verdict, the boy was set free.

Power In The First Part Of A Clockwork Orange Essay

The opening of the unused is the line Whats it going to be then, ey? This is bring inly something that is said by someone in an authoritative countersink and we learn in the next sentence that this is Alex. He is our narrator and this gives him a certain amount of military group as he can need what he wants to tell us as readers. Burgess in addition shows Alexs occasion through the miscellaneous idle attacks he perpetrates on plurality who we would consider to be in a position of more tr remnant than Alex is in our hold society.The first of these instances is the attack upon a schoolteacher, which is a clear and obvious indicator that this society is procedureually wrong. At the tender hop on of fifteen, it would be considered totally inconceivable that Alex would not only attack, but also humiliate a man who relies upon respect from youths in order to do his job. The forcible office the cluster have all everyplace the teacher is nearly a way of compensating fo r Alex and his gang feeling threatened intellectually and in this sense the teacher is the more roleful.This idea of physical versus intellectual power is explored again when the gang leave the town centre to inspectk victims in the suburbs. When they respect the writer and his wife, they destroy the mass and convey the couple into teary-eyed subordination. These actions atomic number 18 lead by Alex who is portrayed as an almost insane intellectual and so dislikes the idea of not understanding the fair gloopy cognomen of the book. I believe he is also prone to paranoia because he fixates livid at the merest suggestion of someone being more intelligent or cultured than himself.As a totally egocentric way of assert his power, Alex also beats up a drunk who is stumbling around and singing because he found him disgusting. This does not show any correlation to the other attacks as there is obviously no intellectual altercate from this man and so this attack is purely a conf idence interpose along and has no real reason at all. Aside from their physical power, Alex and his gang also command a certain amount of fear amongst the antiquated folk at the pub they visit.They ar able, through brash transplant and intimidation, to operate a room full of adults to comply with their wishes fairly tardily even though no violence is used, or even suggested. This shows that the gangs of youths roaming the streets are infamous and that the civilised society they prey upon is doing little, if anything, to stop them. The power presented to us here, or lack of it, is the states diminished power over criminals of a violent and numerous nature. This is further demonstrated when Alex and his gang come across a rival gang in a innocent place where their laws are obeyed e.g. survival of the fittest. The power each gang has over the other is decided in a very fitting way considering what is done with this power because the gang who can cause the most dishonor and pai n wins the power to carry on doing so to other throng outside the gang wars. One much(prenominal) unfortunate victim is the gray-headed woman who is the last of Alexs victims as a free man. The gang, and Alex, seize they have unrivalled power over the old woman not only because of her age but also because they find out themselves as untouchably vigorous in fights and aggression.However, Alexs power seems to be with his gang because, contrary to his own beliefs, he finds he cannot do the robbery alone and is shocked to find the old woman beating him with a stick. This is a very exotic thing to happen to Alex as he sees himself as above the surmise of actually getting hurt. However, it is clear that this invulnerable character is only as such when he is supported by his gang, who are given very little credit throughout the first half of the novel for their various roles within the crimes.The utterly surreal struggle for power and control surrounded by the old woman and the yo ung but hardened criminal ends with a swift blow to the head from Alex and so we see his physical power keeping him in control yet again. However, the authorities finally get Alex under their control through (ironically) fairly violent methods. The police are portrayed as fighting fire with fire, so to speak, as they beat Alex and humiliate him just as he had done to so galore(postnominal) forrader.This is cleverly done by Burgess as this lets the reader see how these muckle, who are fighting against Alex and the culture he represents, are actually no better than him in a moral sense as they get their power in exactly the same way e. g. through violent beatings and intimidation. Another example of role reversal is the relationship between P. R Deltoid and Alex both before and after his arrest. Prior to the arrest, Alex was very uninterested of P. R Deltoids warnings and cared little about what he had to say, as he was untouchable and would never be caught, as he was such an inte lligent young man.However once he cods how much disconcert he really is in, he becomes very meek and humble before P. R Deltoid and asks him for help. It is then that P. R Deltoid becomes the one who does not care and, in his position of power over Alex, spits in face. This is an act usually saved for use by the very lowest of people and is yet more evidence of the hypocritical use of humiliating actions on Alex by the people who are supposed to be putting an end to these actions.Throughout the first part of the novel, Alex uses barbaric force and pure physical strength to overpower his enemies and victims. He sees this as proof of his own positive strength when, in fact, it is down to his gang that he is not harmed by his numerous encounters with violence. His egotistical delusions lead him to believe that he can inspect his power upon someone by himself and this over-confidence ultimately concretes his arrest. From this point, the readers of this novel would expect to see the police processing and punishing Alex harshly but effectively and humanely.Instead, we realise that the police are so used to seeing the violence that they no longer try to avoid it and instead resort to it themselves. We are shown that power has changed hands dramatically over the course of the first part of the novel but we can also recognise that the way in which the power is gained and exerted does not change in the slightest as it passes from criminals to civilians to policemen. This is a very raise comment on the dystopian society presented to us in this book and serves as a powerful warning for our own future.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Twilight: Movie vs Book

The Twilight saga is a fantasy tidings that became even more popular with the movie that came show up two old age after the account guard. Twilight is about a teenage girl that brings peril to her life by f all tolding in love with an immortal vampire. The make is written by Stephanie Meyer who has written 3 more books to the series. Even thought that the movie Twilight was based on the book it had a weed of differences and there were a divvy up of missing parts.One of the biggest differences is that the book is written from Bellas thoughts it is very she who narrates the situations she is in. The reader gets to be Bella in a way and you find out everything she thinks and feels about Edward. Although in the movie reflects on both Bella and Edward, by ceremony the movie you outweart get the self selfsame(prenominal)(prenominal) feeling as in the book. If there are some private thoughts of Bella that the viewer must know about, you get them in the context of the story it feels almost standardised Bella is writing a diary.Another important difference is how Bella finds out that Edward is a vampire. In the book, the school they are going in is having a dance and because Bella is not really that in to dancing she and Edward decide to go to Seattle, but the dont even go to Seattle instead Edward takes Bella to the meadow and tells her what he is and he reveals himself in the sunlight so that she merchant ship see that he is sparkling in the sunlight.In the movie they are in front of their school preparing to go to class and Edward decides to go to the nearby forest, Bella went after him and she confessed that she knows what he is, Edward was surprised and he tries to scare her by showing himself in to the sunlight so that she can see that he is sparkling. However the book and the movie have a lot of similarities as well. The family dynamics are described very well. In the book Bellas mother Rene is very eccentric and she cares a lot about Bella, even though she does not get more than a few minutes in the movie, you can easily see her personality.It is the same with Bellas father Charlie, he did not spend much clock with Bella when she was little and the awkwardness between them is described well in the book and in the movie. Altogether both the book and the movie follow the same storyline. As I mentioned earlier the movie is based on the book twilight and it is hard to miss that, they have the same method and all the important characters. I would recommend to read the book first and consequently watching the movie because the small differences in the movie are portentous as of course that depends from the viewers.

Gloria Estefan

Gloria Estefan, is seen an icon of Latin music. She engraved her path in the world of music by helping many people, and by influencing them. She has worked hard-fought to get to w present she is today, and is still thriving. Not only is she a great singer, shes a great humanitarian, and is always reaching out those in need. Gloria was the one who introduced a Latin influence into her claims and she will always be remembered because of that.Gloria Mara Fajardo Garca, was born on September 1, 1957 in Havana, Cuba. When was two years over-the-hill she left Cuba to go to Miami with her family, after Fidel rose to power. Life wasnt easy when she got here at first, precisely after she started adapting, slowly, but surely, she became the icon and the great influencer she is today. Gloria has agnize the struggle for Latin rights in the US.I see got always apprehension that when someone listens to a song of mine they rule strength, hope. I feel happy that my music can brighten up and help opposite peopleWith her message, Gloria has achieved great songs such as Mi Tierra, Abriendo Puertas, and Alma caribea. These songs have made her rise to the top on all of the charts. She is considered one of the popular musical artists of all time. Selling more than 100 million records ecumenical She has numerous Grammy cedes and a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.In 1990, she was invited to sing at the White House. The bus who took her back had an accident. Gloria survived but a spinal injury left her invalid for a long time. I broke my back and thought I would never walk again, she said. afterward this accident, she opened up her sensitivity to the people that suffer, not only paralysis, but all kinds of illnesses. She realized that her position, and fame, could be put to many great things which direct her to create the Gloria Estefan Foundation to arrive ater a helping hand for those who have any type of illness President Barack Obama awarded the Medal of Liberty a ward to Gloria and her husband, Emilio, in November 2015.On September 19, 2011, she received the Ultimate Award, for being a model of inspiration for youth. Gloria has shockingly performed at the Olympics and at the Superbowl twice Her song Reach even turned into the hymn for the 1996 Atlanta Summer OlympicsGloria has always been find on using her fame to bring awareness to political affairs. In 2010, Gloria magnificently led Las Damas de Blanco march down Calle Ocho in support of the opposition private road in Cuba. Gloria became a board of director for Univision Communications Inc.In conclusion, the keen singer is still continuing to thrive in the music industry. Gloria came to Miami in hopes of achieving the American Dream, thats one more thing she can scratch off her bucket list. And keep in mind dont despise humble beginnings.

Monday, February 25, 2019

Current And Future Use of Technology Essay

Spotify has provided a federal agency for people to access and division harmony with services such as win over of selections and even wide-eyed awake access. In the process of providing these services, the habituaters entropy is acquired d one initial registration and this helps reason the commercialize. The main(prenominal) tar b other for Spotify is not registration of exchange premium accounts with come forward adverts but the dethaw use by the public where adverts can be played in between songs. at that place are umpteen issues handled by Spotify in the succinct letter including competition from existing on television channel euphony selling companies wish Sony and Apple, and challenges on fresh artists royalties with restrictions by copyrights in some regions. The e argument system is thoroughly established for Spotify as the society deals with practice of medicine producing companies and companies who look for a way to advertise brands. The peer to peer engine room use and the blow of perceive to symphony even when offline to sither with a simple user interface are all technological returns of Spotify that make it popular in the foodstuff.The prox of Spotify is based on integration of the software into hand held processing devices equivalent modern phones, and having a good relative with the sources of music. E-Business background Spotifys business idea was to create a intermediate through which to provide advertisers with a way of clearing a trace fit and response predictable market. By creating a digital library of a wide variety of music and an interface through which bewareers can register and take heed to music absolve, Spotify was able do just that. There are adverts pushed in between songs and outlast for between 15 and 30 seconds.The users that dont want to get interference from the audio adverts can pay a monthly conquerance to stop them. The portion of listeners who pay this fee is so small compared to t he free users, who puzzle out the main market idea for Spotify. The community has arrangement with the macrocosms study labels to provide their music and in return song an 18% stake in the company. The integration of the music producing companies, the listeners and the advertisers forms the e-business model for Spotify. There is competition from similar companies like, Amazon (which sells music online), my space and facebook with the identify rival cosmos Last. fm. Spotify and Last. fm fetch integrated their systems though and this form a way to create an entry hardship in an reason to protect high profit business and raise competition advantage for both companies to realize. Porters Five Forces model Spotifys business faces the five forces from threats of substitute, barriers to entry, hand over indicator, buyers power and rivalry (Porter 1985). There are various ways that it has pitch up strategies to deal with this.First, in that respect is the presence of su bstitute firms like Last. com Spotify has be afterward to sing a deal in combined operations with the company in order to incr console the business opportunities for both sides. It was proposed that the advertisers/brands could then be able to buy advertising services across the platforms of the two companies (McCormick 2009). agree to the nature of the platform on which the adverts are run, Spotify has created a medium where the sum is teemline with the music being listened to.Apart from the major rival with whom Spotify agrees to merge business with, the brands entrust face a hard time expression for an alternative service of the kind. Thus the buyers power is low, considering that there are also many scattered brands to advertise through the electronic platform. Furthermore, the platform provides a way of major eternise labels availing their music to the users, reservation sure that brands can get the largest number of music fans at Spotify, which they cannot get from o nline music shops. On the suppliers power towards Spotifys business, there are many music producing labels that offer a variety of music.Also, the fact that the buyers of the service are somewhat weak, the suppliers are also put in the same line because advertisers has no much power over Spotify, they cannot demand of specific record labels. Since the entry of Spotify into the e-business, the key issue is to keep the prices offered virtually low in order to provide a barrier of entry of new competition. oneness strategy applied by firms to this effect is merging their markets and operations so that they can enjoy economies of scale and protect the high profit market from other entrants composition keeping the quality of services high.This was a showcase possible from the Spotifys deal with Last. fm. There is rivalry in the effort of e-business and trade through electronic heart and soul has been applied by many companies. The industry is disciplined though, from previous compe tition, the methods of enticing the music fans and through ease of use of platforms by the market forming population. The exertion streams music with no buffering times and provides a very wide variety of ready to listen categories of songs from major record labels.The fact that the market for Spotify seems to be exponentially growing means that soon the buyers will be so many and so their power will go down, providing a business advantage for the company ( ). E-Marketing The net income is a unique marketing medium in that it provides a spherical market with photoflash response dynamism. The fact that when a product is announce through the meshwork can reach millions of users within a short era is enough to make it a rich market. Spotify has its marketing strategy based on online access of adverts by the users in their endeavor to listen to music. Data and Market AnalysisThe starchyest part of Spotify registration of users is that it takes the demographic data so that the c ompany is in a position to provide marketing strategies to advertisers based on age, location and music taste. The ability to analyze and bump a market is important to advertisers, peculiarly when it involves technical goods and services. Promotion and alert services The introduction of the prompt version of Spotify software has helped in a far reaching marketing strategy. The whole issue has been in intelligence information for sometime and major discussion blogs and websites like BBC NEWS, leading to less expensive promotion effect in Europe.The market in Spotify is really the online internet resource as well as the users PCs and man-portable mobile Activities Spotify engages in various activities that are geared towards having a wide base of users so that it can reach more people when targeting an listening for an advert. These activities include require scheme, tell a colleague and viral advertising. The take up scheme is where the newly registered and the existing me mbers are given an opportunity to invite friends and family to experience Spotify while still promoting the premium membership.The tell a friend activity involves a Spotify inbuilt tool to spread word of mouth. This is a strategy to use the existing users to get the message to their friends using the already existing internet framework. The other one is viral advertising where the medium mainly used is social networking frameworks like facebook. The most visited WebPages are targeted and a multimedia message displayed. Web-design Spotify has created a peer to peer application that streams music between the listeners computer, whether online or offline.Spotify has a service to which clients connect and start the confine of the cache summarized in an index which is then sent to Spotifys stream hub. The data in the index is usually used to alert other users of the additional peers they can connect to, to fetch streamed data for specific songs being played. This arrangement is enabled and tolerated by each upon start up. Each client listen to incoming connections from other Spotify clients like a server and connects to other users to exchange cached data. The users are actually not in apposition to configure the connections or alter the bandwidth of transmission of data.These settings are hard coded in the system. The design of the completed architecture may be complicated but the interface used by the listeners is so simple and effective. There are just a couple of(prenominal) controls of play, rewind and forward. The Spotify application offers the following distinctions to the users Catalogue Spotify offers users access to millions of music tracks including songs from major music labels. Some specific music from some artists may not be purchasable due to boundary regulations in the copyright. Playlists it allows users to create collections of favorite music and lets them share them.The users can also edit the playlists with other users together through col laborating software. For this purpose, the playlists can be shared through an email or instant messaging window. On accessing the link, the data gets transfered into Spotify. Integration with Last. fm the specific feature from last. fm is the ability to collect the users preference in music and remembering it into Last. fms database. This has been integrated into Spotify without requiring external plug-ins (Spotify Archives 2010). Radio feature this creates random playlists of songs related to the music of the currently selected artist.Spotify has a simple to use interface that allows the user to search for music by artist, album or title. It displays the user chosen playlist and some advert image, which on clicking, one can explore the promotion (Spotify Forums 2010). Business-to-Business (B2B) Spotify has introduced the music service to the listeners and charge a certain rate for ad free music. However, it does not rely on this for its source of revenue. It largely relies on the free service where the listeners will have to bear with the adverts. At this point, it does business with other firms that want to advertise their brands to the listeners.The main target for business is therefore dealing with other companies that want to reach the audience. On the same platform, there is collaboration with major record labels where they pack a certain percentage stake in the company and in turn provide their music libraries to Spotify (Nylander 2009). Spotify focuses on doing business with other businesses in its conceptions. It has tailored it product for mobile phones and approached the mobile phone making companies like apple in an effort to do business with them (Emerald). This is a take aim challenge to Apples iTunes though and touches on the competition end. ready Commerce Spotify has produced a mobile version of the application that can allow users with premium accounts to access and listen to music wherever they go. It also allows the users to download a certain number of songs on to the phone for listening while out of network range. Mobile business seems to be the future of IT marketing, especially with the progress and expectations of pervasive mobile programming. By considering the mobile version of the application to target the users on the move and virtually at all instances of life, Spotify has provided a wider more reaching market for its business.Given that all the mobile users will have to be premium users, the focus of mobile versions will be to create a customer base where the services will be like a contract between Spotify and the user (Ionescu 2009). This eliminates the advertisers from the picture and allows Spotify to make do with earlier established businesses on the same line like Apple, while still spreading the risk. Instead of relying on the advertising source alone, the company can now create a one to one relation with the music fans through their premium accounts. ConclusionsIt is a good business plan for Spotify to create such a huge market base by having so many users registered, both free and premium categories. The plan of get-up-and-go adverts into streamed music provides an excellent way of gaining the revenue from brands. On the mobile world, it provides a good way of reaching a wider market and a premium account for the mobile is a plus on the revenue. This was a impudent decision considering the processing power of phones cannot be compared to that of PCs. The strategy of extending into the mobile world was a good way of preparing for the future of IT with the trends in pervasive mobile programming.Mobile marketing will form an even wider market considering the more frequent use and an extension of the PC use after work hours. Recommendations The competition in the market is high and Spotify will have to deal with some issues, especially with the application interface and specifically the technology on the size of bandwidth among other resource utilized on users machines. check is usually on the fact that the interface does not give a user the access to control the amount of resources like bandwidth that Spotify uses against other systems on the same machine.The issue of coming up with a way of establishing the mixed bag of music sources with their effect on the market using the users data to form the ratings would be an important thing to indulge in, in order to establishing a fair royalties to the artists in order to keep everyone happy and the future of Spotify glistening (BBC News 2010). More concentration on helping the production teams with profitable demographic and ratings information will give the company a strong relationship with the source of music, the medium they use to make money. ReferencesBBC News, (2010) Spotify boss Daniel Ek sets out future plans, Online, Available http//news. bbc. co. uk/2/hi/8478599. stm Porter M. (1998) war-ridden strategy techniques for analyzing industries and competitors, Free Press, ISBN 0684005778, 9 780684005775. McCormick, A. (2009) Spotify and Last. fm moot partnership, Britannica article vicissitude (14605953) Online, Available http//www. britannica. com/bps/additionalcontent/18/38216709/Spotify-and-Lastfm-moot-partnership Ionescu D. , Nov 23, 2009, Spotify Lands App for Symbian Phones, todayPCworld, Online, Available http//www.pcworld. com/article/182833/spotify_lands_app_for_symbian_phones. hypertext mark-up language Robert Andrews, 2009, Apple Approves Spotifys iPhone App, web article on Paid capability UK, Online, Available http//paidcontent. co. uk/article/419-spotify-says-apple-still-testing-iphone-app-spotify-vanishes-from-app-s/ Emerald, Current CITE-ings from the popular and trade computing press, depository library Hi Tech News, Volume 26, Issue 9, Online, Available http//www. emeraldinsight. com. ezproxy. cqu. edu. au/ shrewdness/ViewContentServlet? contentType=NonArticle&Filename=Published/NonArticle/Articles/23926iae.001. html Spotify Archives (2010) Spotify for iPhone v0. 4 now available, Online, Available http//www. spotify. com/int/blog/archives/2010/03/31/iphone-v4/ Johan Nylander, Record labels part proprietor of Spotify, from The Swedish Wire, Published Friday, 07 August 2009, Online, Available http//www. swedishwire. com/business/680-record-labels-part-owner-of-spotify Spotify Forums, What is Spotify? Why guide Spotify? How much advertising? Online, Available http//www. spotify-forum. com/what_is_spotify. php

Pearl Harbor Turning Point in History Essay

We chose our topic by making a list of workable topics that concerned us and looking at the topics that were suggested by our teacher. We then questioned a little bit, variant books and articles about different topics and events that happened in history. We finally mulish on The eruption of Pearl Harbor, because it interested us the most. I began my research by going to the library to find out as more information about japan and America during that era. Then, i began to search online for particular documents that gave insight on the attack on Pearl Harbor.After that, i began to look up video and other ancient source documents. From that, my run across began to evolve. The road to war between the United States of America and Japan began on the surprise aerial attack on the United States Navy substructure in Pearl Harbor on December 7th 1941. This was the bug out step that brought the might United States into the Second World War dealing between the two countries started t o detireate in the early 1930s when Japan started to bend aggressive in Asia, mainly in Manchuria in 1931 and tried to start conquering the rest of China into 1937.Japan in 1940 decided to assort itself with the Axis with countries like Germany. This alone made us extremely interested in the topic After deciding on the topic of The Attack Of Pearl Harbor, we researched more about this event by going to the library, researching online, reading books, reading articles, watching videos, and looking at pictures from that day. There were many primary and secondary sources about this topic, which made it easier to research.There were also many pictures, which was surprise considering this event occurred in 1941. We decided to do a website for our History sportsmanlike roll. Once we determined our topic we realized it would be very herculean to find some time to meet up and work on the project, thats when we thought to do a website. It would easy for both(prenominal) of us to access, since we both vex computers at home. Also we dont have to always meet up to work on it.This gives us both more time to add more information to our website and make it better. Our project about Pearl Harbor relates to the National History Day authorship of 2012, act points in history, because the attack itself was a turning point within a turning point. World War 2 was a turning point in our history because it helped to stop communism and the spreading of Adolf Hitlers power. And The Attack of Pearl Harbor is a turning point in the war, the point when the United States decided to take part in the war. in advance the bombs hit us, we wanted to stay out of the war. But after Japan mercilessly bombed Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, we knew it was time to try to put an end to the axis of rotation powers. Without this attack, we wouldnt have joined the war, and the war wouldnt have touch us. And without the bombing, the axis powers probably wouldve had a chance of winning, so the US connecto r the war was a big turning point.

Sunday, February 24, 2019

Machiavelli’s story Essay

He wrote to medic embellished with magnificent words unneurotic with extrinsic allurements wishing the trefoils honor should give him the identify of the off-keyice that he definitely was stuffing of. He contemplated and made assumptions of himself macrocosm humble and low before the concerns of the princes, pretending to start understood the unavoidably of people. He also thought that the book was a present to the prince to attract him in order to be given a vacancy in the new government.He even recommends to the prince to intelligently and diligently read and account the book as in the Prince will end up schooling Machiavellis extreme desire for prince to attain the greatness that fortune and other(a) attributes promise. Machiavelli figured that the principalities are all hereditary to power and its acquisition is habituated to live under the prince by either fortune or ability. He anticipated that the prince should keep the corrupt government continue to rule for the b enefits of the some him included against to which what it was. His story from is was ultimately different from what it should be.For instance, Duke of Ferrara in Italy who could not have withstood the attacks of the Venetians in 1984 nor those of Pope Julius in 1910 unless of the establishment of dominions. For hereditary prince has less urinate to and less necessity to offend to happen that he will be more loved but the vice versa caused him to be more despised as it was reasonable that Machiavellis subject naturally disposed him off from the prince, his motives was derived to no existence of change and his own definition of change was the peerless that leaves the toothing for other to keep the corrupt government from one generation to another that impossibly didnt happen.Machiavellis story was defining change as the deception of the willing election of the new ruler hoping to better themselves presentiment that could hardly rise from the inherent difficulties from the new to be principalities. He figures solidarity as hardship that he must put upon his new acquisition in order to satisfy those who elected Medic into power. Machiavelli egocentrically viewed himself as the core tower for the success of Medics government, thus he must be given the position on this regime to excel.He beliefs not that Borge Cesare lost power by malignity of fortune that he acquired during the ascendancy of his father. In Machiavellis story, he didnt imagine to care about the so called enemies whom he injured in seizing principality and he is not even considering the essence for them to feel satisfied as the way the anticipate or hopped when they were electing you into power. Instead Machiavelli suggested for the strong measures to be taken against them, feeling not bound to them anymore and they are profound to be oppressed by the use of the strong forces under the command of the leader in charge.This was all in all different from even the theoretical view of Medic when h e came into power. His relegation and vision was to have equality among all those who elected him, stop/ subvert corruption and that is why he disputed the gift from Machiavelli that was vividly gravid him a clue towards the corrupt government to benefit the a fewer including Machiavelli. Medic wasnt gullible for the public properties as the story of Machiavelli deliver him as somebody who is gullible, selfish/mean, corrupt and egocentric.Basing on Machiavellis story, he viewed that the hold of accustomed hereditary pass of power was a careful courtesy from the ancestors and anybody doing contrary to it was like transgression towards the ancestors. In order to smokestack prudently with circumstances as they arise and for the care to maintain Medic in state Machiavelli must be in the cabinet in the government and if not so something sinister will happen to uncase Medic extra-ordinary from power, which was untrue and didnt happen. Reference 1. The Prince By Niccolo Machiavelli , Translated By George red cent Published By Penguin Books Ltd (1995).

Oil and Gas Problems in Kazakhstan

Kazakhstans anele provision cosmic string counseling Ch solely in allenges Kazakhstan is endowed with inscrutable vernacular reserves, which provide an important source of taxs for stable scotch produce and improvement of the countrys living standard. This paper addresses the challenge the republic of Kazakhstan faces in managing its anele fork all over fibril. The countrys capacity for refining crude vegetable anele is minimal and a substantial portion of that refining capacity is outside the commonwealth added to that, to the highest degree of the rail lines and refineries to exportingation crude rock throttleeum to international markets be commonly managed by the Republic and multinational corpo symmetryns (MNCs).Thus in that location are political, technological and financial risks for the republics rock crude allow for mountain range. 14 Jay Nathan, The Peter J. Tobin College of Business, St. Johns University As in new(prenominal) cover col or producing nations, Kazakhstans fossil crude embrocate industry revenues directly depend on the worldwide damages for oil colour and oil products, based on deliver and postulate and revenues depend on the be of production and conducting the final product to guests (Rasizade, 1999). For Kazakhstans oil supply orbit, the physical scattering infrastructure connecting supplies of crude oil to refineries and to the world markets through ph unmatchable lines, has been challenging and costly.Moreover, presently Kazakhstan is equipped with scarce a few refineries and therefore the study portion of Kazakhstans crude oil is being refined in Russia. Recently, mainland China has frameed intemperately in the construction of cables across the Republic of Kazakhstan to supply the increased accept for oil in China. Thus Kazakhstan has to manage political, technical and financial risks in the integration of her oil supply chain (Gaudenzi and Borghesi, 2006 Lockamy and McCormack , 2004). In the era of fast technological study and globalization. It is imperative that every nation adapts to such an environment. allow chain management has become an important means for sustaining competitive advantage for all successful industries and businesses (Magretta, 1998). The objective of every supply chain, including the global oil industry, is to maximize the boilers suit value generated. The value a supply chain generates to an organization, or to a nation is the difference between what the final product is worth to the guest and the effort the Introduction Kazakhstan has considerable deposits of oil however, the country faces a effective disadvantage of not having any direct access to the open sea, as the Caspian ocean is landlocked.While her oil industrys upstream cost, i. e. , the cost for exploration, development and production of crude oil, whitethorn be similar to that of most some other oil producing nations, its downstream cost, i. e. , transit of crud e oil to the refinery, refining and transportation to markets in particular, is to a greater extent costly (Sridharan, Canines and Patterson 2005). For Kazakhstan to transport the oil to world markets, the industry has to depend on logical arguments (Cavenagh, 1999) through other countries. Also, maintaining such an operation requires a large military issue of skilled workers, unless Kazakhstan does not return enough of them.Kazakhstans Oil tag on kitchen range wariness Challenges 15 supply chain expends in weft the guests request. For most commercial supply shackles, value provide be potently correlated with supply chain profitability, the difference between the revenue generated from the customer and the general cost across the supply chain (Chopra and Meindl, 2003 Lee, 2002 Cavinato, 2002). The Republic of Kazakhstan will do well to monitorespecially to sustain return the overall value of her oil supply chain in the coming days. because of refinery sack www. gravm ag. com, 2006).It is important to note that greater economic rewards prat be gained only with well-integrated global oil supply chain management. Oil Production sharing Agreement and Risks in Kazakhstan The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of Kazakhstan and the Ministry of Fuel and Energy of Russia, periodically set quotas for Kazakhstans oil flow through Russian territory. For example, on celestial latitude 25, 2000 the quota for Kazakhstan was set at 17. 3 million oodles. The memorandum between Kazakhstan and Russia of October 9, 2000 sets the teaching of a single route, whose sole operator is the Kazakh Oil Company.Annual quotas depend in general on the political relations between the two nations. Besides politics, there is also a technical risk factor, i. e. , the high degree of lineage wear and deterioration, which may hamper the effectiveness and quality of services provided to export countries. In addition, the lack of proper maintenance of these oil grapes doe s exist in the first place imputable to the fact that a large number of well-trained local technicians and engineers who are required are not available to day (Doing Business with Kazakhstan, 2004).Kazakhstans oil argumentation transcriptions were built in the 70s much than 60 per centum of oil pipelines of the Western branch, to be exact) and the rest in the 80s 75 percent of the easterly branch). Thus, at the end of the year 2000, Oil producing countries and global supply chains Energy makes the wheels of global supply chains go round ( develop La Londe, 2006). A typical oil supply chain begins with the crude oil producer, next, the oil moves to the refiner, the transporter, the retailer and finally to the plash pump where a customer receives the product.The top world oil producers are Saudi Arabia, Russia, the join States, Iran, Mexico, China, Canada, United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, Norway, Kuwait, Nigeria, Brazil, Kazakhstan and Iraq. The Organization of the Petroleum Ex porting Countries (OPEC) controls major crude oil supplies to the world. OPEC influences the price of crude oil by setting production quotas. The values revenue opportunities) are added by processing and chemically changing the crude oil, which is called refining. A 42-gallon barrel of crude oil makes almost 19 1/2 gallons of gasoline, nine gallons of fuel oil, four gallons of jet fuel and 11 gallons of other products, including lubricants, kerosene, asphalt and petrochemical feed-stocks to make plastics. This adds up to more than than 42 gallons Supply chain management has become an important means for sustaining competitive advantage for all successful industries and businesses. Kazakhstans Oil Supply Chain heed Challenges 16 55 percent ofthe pipelines were 10 to 20 years old and 12 percent had been used for more than 30 years.Only 1 percent has been used for less(prenominal) than 10 years. As age goes by, those pipelines are getting even senior and that means not only the ri sk and cost of maintaining them would be larger, besides also the situation presents serious technical problems as well for the Republic of Kazakhstan Petroleum diary. com, 2006). form of joint ventures, production sharing agreements and exploration/field agreements. Oil is recovered from 55 fields. The largest of these fields are Tengiz (some one one thousand million wads of predicted oil reserves) Karachaganak (340 million lots in oil reserves, more than 1. billion slews in gas condensates and more than 1. 3 trillion cubelike meters of natural gas) Uzen (with over 1. 5 billion tons of geological hydrocarbon reserves, of which more than 200 million tons are extractable) and Kumkola (with 350 million tons of oil reserves, of which 80 million tons of oil and 75 billion box-shaped meters of natural gas are proven). The Caspian and Aral Sea shelf also shoot significant reserves. Currently, there are only three major refineries in Kazakhstan Atyrau, Shymkent and Pavlodar (see Ex hibit 2). Kazakhstans Oil Fields and ProductionMangistau and Atyrau oblasts (provinces) are the main oil producing areas in Kazakhstan (see Exhibit 1). They account for more than 70 percent of the total oil extracted in the Republic. The other three extracting divisions, Aktyubinsk, Kzylorda and Zapadno Kazakhstanskaya, account for the remainder. International oil projects have taken the Exhibit 1 Production (in thousand tons) by regions 1998 flagrant oil, thousand tons Aktubinskaya Atyrauskaya Zapadno-Kazakhstanskaya Kyzylordinskaya Mangistauskaya 23,818. 7 2,640. 8 11,135. 1 3,007. 8 7,035. 0 1999 26,735. 8 2,326. 7 12,359. 3 3,928. 8,121. 7 2000 30,647. 9 2,701. 1 13,422. 0 13. 5 533. 8 9,173 2001 36,060. 0 3,405. 3 15,589. 5 49. 4 6,172. 8 10,843. 0 offset study Statistics Agency of Kazakhstan, 2005 Kazakhstans Oil Supply Chain Management Challenges 17 Exhibit 2 Design and Delivery Capacities of study Refineries Plant Design Capacity m In. tons Actual Deliveries min. tons P er month Design thousand tons Actual thousand tons Per day Design thousand tons Actual thousand tons Shymkent Oil Refinery PavlodarOil Refinery Atyrau Oil Refinery 6. 5 3. 6 2. 3 590 326. 8 189. 5 245. 4 19. 7 22. 6 14 10. 9 6. 3 7. 5 4. 677 418 2. 7 8. 2 Source National Statistics Agency of Kazakhstan, 2005 Pavlodar (a unusual investor was prone a management concession in 1997 the plant has been under authorities control since summer 1999) processes mainly light crude from Siberia and supplies the northern region of Kazakhstan Atyrau belongs to Kazakhoil, processing heavy domestic oil and supplies the western region Shymkent was in the main sold (95 per cent) to private investors in 1996. It processes dedicated crude from the region (Kumkol, Aktyubinsk, Turkmen fields) and supplies the south, particularly Almaty.Kazakhstans Oil Production and Distri moreoverion Costs A coterie of contrasting schemes exist for dividing oil revenues between the military country and the fore ign partner. The usual target for distribution of revenue from production to market is just close to 85 percent to the host country and 15 percent to the oil company. This ratio can be construed in a variety of different ways with different types of contractual forms it also depends on the host countrys laws and preferences, but in general oil companies target this ratio.This number has varied over the years. For example, in Saudi Arabia the ratio is much higher in advance of the Saudis due to huge reserves and tower production cost. In the Caspian, the ratio is likely to be lower due to additional transport be of getting the oil out of the region, i. e. , pipeline construction costs and journey fees and political risks in the area. Part of the problems with signing contracts with Caspian nations has been the nations unwillingness to recognize the economic necessity of decreasing the ratio (Feiveson, 1998).The upstream breakdown of costs is about 10 percent for exploration to find an economical field (odds are about one in 10 holes drilled will assume a commercial-sized field), 80 percent (or higher) to develop the find and 10 percent in continued on pg. 20 The benefits an increased number of by rights educated personnel would befar the proper management of the entire supply chain activities are long it is a strategic necessity for the Republic of Kazakhstan to leverage and sustain rising oil revenues. Major Oil lineages and their Routes MapHere are the mixed Kazak pipelines and their routes Kazakhstans Oil Supply Chain Management Challenges 18 Exhibit 3 Map of Major Pipelines Oil ptpalina Existing) prundw eonsiruClioR A Maior Ott nekl RBfinoty Planntd wunott confl ruction 0 Mil 200 Km 400 Oil Pipelines Infrastructure in Central Asia Source Adapted from Kazakhstan Oil and Gas International multitude Proceedings, 2002 The major pipelines are identified by the Kazakhstan Ministry of Power, Industry and Trade as the projected priority export routes for oil in the following lay out 1.Atyrau-Samara pipeline The possibilities for oil exports along the AtyrauSamara oil pipeline are confine by its throughput capacity and by the quota set by Russia. This is a limiting factor for the growth of both crude oil production and export supplies. To increase the throughput capacity from 10 to 15 million tons per year, a series of technical measures in Kazakhstan and Russia are being taken at a cost of 22 million dollars Kazakhstans Oil Supply Chain Management Challenges 2. Tengiz-Novorossisk oil pipeline The Caspian Pipeline Consortiums (CPC) oil export pipeline project is a short-term priority westward.This project ensures an independent blowhole for Kazakhstans oil exports to the Black Sea and opens up opportunities for the attraction of foreign investments in the oil-and-gas sector. The necessary agreements for the project participants have already been signed and operations initiated 3. Trans-Caspian pipeline Planned to follow a rou te through the Black Sea to Turkey, the Trans-Caspian oil pipeline project is considered to be a priority. The oil pipeline will stretch from Western Kazakhstan to an outlet on the Mediterranean (the Turkish port of Ceyhan) via the Caspian Sea.The territory of Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey creates risks for the project due to the composite mountainous terrain and water barriers and the need to cross confiict-prone zones 4. Kazakhstan-China pipeline Since 2004, in the Kazakhstan ingredient of the Caspian Sea, the volume of the crude oil production has increased. The export oil pipeline of the CPC alone cannot strike the posit for oil transportation infrastructure. Preliminary plan and economic calculations have shown that an oil pipeline eastward to China is a promising and economically favorable project.The Kazakhstan-China oil pipeline project can, simultaneously, meet Kazakhstans national security interests and provide an outlet to meet Chinas growing demand for oil. The oil pipelines route will pass over the territory of Kazakhstan and China will guarantee the project funding. The downside of the project is that the Peoples Republic of China can potentially control the price paid for the oil 5. Iranian Gulf-Iranian oil pipeline The Persian Gulf-Iranian oil pipeline provides another possible oil pipeline route to the south.However, severe competition from OPEC countries can bring about a reduction in the price paid for oil from the Persian Gulf. Consequently, a reduced load on the oil pipeline may occur at some time in the future due to low profitability in that market. No terms for investment militarisation for this project have yet been defined 6. Arabian Sea-Trans-Asi an oil pipeline The Trans-Asian oil pipeline via Kazakhstan-Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan to an outlet in the Arabian Sea is politically highly risky, since it passes over the territory of Afghanistan.Currently, consideration is being given to the base question of how the funding will be organized for the project. Kazakhstans Oil Supply Chain Management Challenges 20 Exhibit 4 Comparison of dishonor Costs per barrel of Kazakh Oil Route Cost to Port $1. 42 $1. 42 $1. 42 Black Sea Tanker Second Pipeline Final Tanker Cost $1. 23 Total Tengiz Novorossiysk Samsun Ceyhan NovorossiyskBosporus Bypass Turkmenistan Kharg Source KazakhOil hide, 2005 $2. 65 $3. 46 $3. 17 $2. 50 $0. 40 $0. 40 $0. 88 $0. 59 $0. 76 $0. 76 $0. 93 $1. 57 operating costs to produce the oil.Exploration costs are cash expenditures, which include payments for exploration licenses to the host countries. Development costs are capital costs depreciated over time and operating costs pay for themselves with the sales of crude oil production. downriver costs include transportation of crude to the refinery, refining, transportation of products to market and marketing. If one were to examine the cost breakdown of a gallon of gas called petrol in some countries) averaged around the world, from ground to market, the distribution would be nearly 2. percent for exploration 12. 5 percent or more) for production and development 20 percent to the host government 2. 5 percent for transportation to a refinery 7. 5 percent for refining 2. 5 percent to transport to market 2. S percent for marketing 50 percent in taxes to the consumer at the pump For example, the costs per barrel for export of Tengiz oil are lifting costs (the costs to get crude oil extracted from below go forth and bringing it to the ground level) $2, pipeline costs $1. 2, transit fee $3, exaltation by oil tanker including other means) $1. 23. The total comes to $7. 65. Kazakhstans Oil Supply Chain Management Challenges In Kazakhstan the preferred contract form is a joint venture between a foreign firm and a state enterprise, generally KazakhOil, which is the state oil company. In a joint venture both the state enterprise and the foreign venture invest stated amounts of capital, which can take various forms, in cluding physical assets and rights to land. Risk is share in proportion to capita nvested. The amount of control the foreign firm has is ordinarily limited and in some cases joint ventures are little more than contracts for procurement. The usual target for distribution of revenue from production to market is about 85 percent to the host country and 15 percent to the oil company. Kazakhstans Oil Supply Chain Management Challenges 21 Kazakhstan has two break-dance pipeline networks a crude oil pipeline from Western Siberia supplies Pavlodar and Shymkent, patch Atyrau runs solely domestic crude from northwest Kazakhstan.The current pipeline system is fragmented and does not link the east and the west of the country, nor does it move petroleum from oil producing fields in the west of the country to the Pavlodar or Shymkent refineries primed(p) in the north and the east. The domestic pipelines capacity will not bring off with the anticipated significant volume increases the Republ ic hopes to be producing in the years to come. At present some of Kazakhstans production is exported by means of barges to Baku, Azerbaijan, where it is provide into the Azerbaijan pipeline network system and sent to world markets (Rasizade, 1999).The existing pipeline networks will require large investments, if Kazakhstan is to develop its crude oil and gas potential to the fullest. Kazakhstans major oil ports are Atyrau and Aktau major oil export pipelines are Tengiz-Novorossiisk (Russia) Uzen-AtyrauSamara (Russia) the Kenkyak-Orsk (Russia) line that transports oil from the Aktyubinsk fields to the Orsk refinery and the Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC) that transports oil from Western Kazakhstan to the Black Sea at Novorossiysk (Baker and McKenzie, 2002).Even though the Republic has upgraded its overall educational system, especially the post-secondary curricula, degree offerings and the academic rigor modeling subsequently the Western-type system, there is still a paucity of engineers and technicians to maintain and to sustain the growth of the oil industry. The benefits an increased number of properly educated personnel would be for the proper management of the entire supply chain activities are enormous it is a strategic necessity for the Republic of Kazakhstan to leverage and sustain future oil revenues. Current Issues in Global Energy marketIn recent years, demand for energy has surged. This unrelenting increase has helped fuel global economic growth, but placed considerable pressure on suppliers augmented by geopolitics and other disruptive factors. On the demand side, increased energy security and environmental concerns may lead to changes in consuming countries energy policies. These uncertainties have been reflected in the market through volatility and high prices (Birol, 2006). Daniel Yergin of Cambridge Energy Research Associates Inc. (CERA) during a symposium on The Economics and Geopolitics of Russian Energy at Georgetown University in capi tal of the United States D. C. n October 29, 2007, forecasted that oil prices are becoming increasingly decoupled from the fundamentals of supply and demand (Yergin, 2007). Policy Implications for the leaders in Kazakhstan Kazakhstan is not a major player in geopolitics. OPEC member states and Russia have political clout in the global energy market. Russia, Kazakhstans northern neighbor, not only has huge oil reserves on her own, but also Energy makes the wheels of global supply chains go round. Kazakhstans Oil Supply Chain Management Challenges 22 controls the refining capacities, as well as some of the flows of refined oil from Kazakhstan to world markets.However, for the young republic, the rich deposit of oil is a clemency at the same time, it can easily be squandered by mismanagement and bad public policy. Fortunately, in todays global world gird with first-class business know-how and with lessons learned from other oil producing nations it is possible for the leadership of Kazakhstan to take a long-term view of proven crude oil deposits in the Caspian Sea and within the sovereign republic of Kazakhstan. 7. Feiveson, H. (1998). The Problem of Caspian Energy. Princeton, red-hot Jersey Princeton University. 8. Gaudenzi, B. and A. Borghesi. (2006). Managing Risks in the Supply Chain Using Ahp Method. International journal of Logistics Management, vol. 17, pp. 114-136. www. gravmag. com 9. Lee, Hau L. (2002). Aligning Supply Chain Strategies with Product Differentiation. California Management Review, pp. 105-119. 10. Lockamy, A. and Kevin McCormack. (2004). Linking SCOR supply practices to supply chain performance. International journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 24, pp. 1192-1218. 11. National Statistics Agency of Kazakhstan, 2005. www. petroleumjournal. kz References 1. Birol, F. (2006). World Energy Prospects and Challenges. The Australian Economic Review, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 190-195. 2. Bud La Londe. (2006). Energy Problem Cries for Decisive Action. Supply Chain Management Review, Vol. 10, Issue 6, pp. 6. 3. Cavenagh, A. (1999, February 24). Caspian Oil Project Has a Slov Road to Syndication. Project pay International, pp. 50-51. 4. Cavinato, J. (2002, May June). Whats Your Supply Chain Type? Supply Chain Management Review, pp. 60-66. 5. Chopra, S. and Meindl, P. (2004). SupplyChain Management (Second Edition). New Jersey Prentice-Hall. 6. Doing Business with Kazakhstan. (2004). Edited by Marat Terterov.London, England Kogan paginate Publishers. 12. Rasizade, A. (1999). Azerbaijan, the U. S. and Oil Prospects On The Caspian Sea. Journal of Third World Studies, vol. XVI, No. 1, pp. 29-48. 13. Report of Baker and McKenzie. (2002, November). CIS Energy Notes. 14. Report of KazakhOil (2005). 15. Sridharan, U. , Caines, R. and C. Patterson. (2005). Implementation Of Supply Chain Management and its Impact on the Value Of Firms. Supply Chain Management, Vol. 10, pp. 313-318. 16. Yergin, D. (2007). Oil Mark et Fever as Prices Near $100. Pipeline & Gas Journal, Issue II, pp. 97-97.

Saturday, February 23, 2019

Anaysis of the Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman

http//www. spark n integritys. com/lit/yellow breakwater subject/con school text. html The color W whole opus, Charlotte Perkins Gilman T satisfactory of content Context Plot Overview Char scraper List Analysis of Major Characters Themes, Motifs, and Symbols signifi messt quotations Explained Key Facts How to Cite This SparkNote Context Charlotte Perkins Gilman was best kn bear in her cartridge holder as a crusading journa leaning and feminist in tellectual, a follower of such(prenominal) pi 1ering womens rights advocates as Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Harriet Beecher Stowe, Gilmans great-aunt.Gilman was concerned with political inequality and fri containly only ifice in ecumenic, nonwith carrying the primary focus of her writing was the incommensurate status of women in spite of appearance the g overning body of marriage. In such works as Concerning Children(1900), The Home (1904), and Human Work (1904), Gilman argued that womens obligation to re prin cipal(prenominal)(prenominal) in the domestic sphither robbed them of the expression of their full powers of creativity and intelligence, while at the same snip robbing community of women whose abilities suited them for professional and public life.An essential part of her abridgment was that the usageal power structure of the family do no virtuoso riantnot the cleaning muliebrityhoodhood who was made into an unpaid servant, not the master(prenominal)tain who was made into a master, and not the children who were subject to both. Her most ambitious work, Women and Economics (1898), analyze the hidden value of womens labor at bottom the capitalist miserliness and argued, as Gilman did throughout her works, that financial independence for women could only benefit society as a whole.To mean solar daylight, Gilman is primarily kn protest for one re endeavorable report, The yellow(a) wall stem, which was considered close unprintably assaulting in its cadence and whic h unnerves contri simplyors to this day. This short work of fiction, which deals with an odds-on marriage and a woman annuled by her unfulfilled trust for self-expression, deals with the same concerns and ideas as Gilmans nonfiction but in a much more(prenominal) than personal mode. Indeed, The lily-livered cover draws heavily on a curiously painful episode in Gilmans kat onceledge life.In 1886, early in her rootage marriage and not long subsequently the birth of her daughter, Charlotte Perkins Stetson (as she was then known) was stricken with a s ever soe movement of stamp. In her 1935 autobiography, The Living of Charlotte Perkins Gilman, she describes her utter prostration byunbearable intimate misery and ceaseless tears, a hold in only made worse by the presence of her husband and her baby. She was referred to Dr. S. Weir Mitchell, then the countrys jumper lead specialist in nervous disorders, whose discourse in such groundss was a rest cure of strained in e mployment.Especially in the elusion of his female patients, Mitchell believed that depressive disorder was brought on by too much affable activity and not enough attention to domestic affairs. For Gilman, this quarrel of treatment was a disaster. Prevented from working, she presently had a nervous break beat. At her worst, she was reduced to creep into closets and downstairs beds, clutching a rag doll. Once she abandoned Mitchells rest cure, Gilmans condition improved, though she leaded to feel the effects of the ordeal for the rest of her life.Leaving derriere her husband and child, a s butt enddalous decision, Charlotte Perkins Stetson (she took the name Gilman by and by a sustain marriage, to her cousin) embarked on a successful career as a journalist, lecturer, and publisher. She wrote The Yellow Wallcomposition soon after her move to California, and in it she utilizes her personal set close to create a tale that is both a chilling exposition of one womans fall in to madness and a strong symbolic narrative of the fate of creative women stifled by a paternalistic culture.In purely literary terms, The Yellow Wall topic looks back to the tradition of the psychological horror tale as practiced by Edgar Allan Poe. For example, PoesThe Tell-Tale Heart is also told from the point of view of an sore cashier. Going throw out back, Gilman also draws on the tradition of the Gothic romances of the late eighteenth century, which practically featured spooky old mansions and young heroines determined to uncover their sequestereds.Gilmans twaddle is also forward-looking, however, and her sec-by- issue reporting of the tellers recoverings is completely a move in the direction of the sort of stream-of-consciousness narration use by such twentieth-century writers as Virginia Woolf, James Joyce, and William Faulkner. Plot Overview The vote counter begins her journal by marveling at the grandeur of the set up and grounds her husband has taken for their summer vacation. She describes it in romantic terms as an aristocratic e situate or even a haunted house and wonders how they were able to afford it, and w herefore the house had been empty for so long.Her feeling that in that location is some occasion queer virtually the point leads her into a discussion of her illnessshe is suffering from nervous falling offand of her marriage. She complains that her husband hind end, who is also her doctor, belittles both her illness and her thoughts and concerns in general. She secernates his practical, rationalistic mood of life with her own imaginative, sensitive ways. Her treatment requires that she do almost zero active, and she is particularly forbidden from working and writing.She feels that activity, freedom, and interesting work would swear out her condition and reveals that she has begun her secret journal in order to relieve her top dog. In an attempt to do so, the vote counter begins describing the house. Her d escription is mostly positive, but lamentable elements such as the rings and things in the bed way of life walls, and the nix on the windows, keep cover up. She is particularly disturbed by the yellow wallpaper in the sleeping accommodation, with its strange, unintegrated specimen, and describes it as revolting. short, however, her thoughts are interrupted by rumps approach, and she is coerce to stop writing.As the number 1 few weeks of the summer pass, the storyteller be deals good at hiding her journal, and thus hiding her true thoughts from buns. She continues to long for more excite company and activity, and she complains again some keisters patronizing, controlling waysalthough she immediately returns to the wallpaper, which begins to seem not only ugly, but oddly menacing. She mentions that seat is worried right about her becoming fixated on it, and that he has even refused to repaper the inhabit so as not to give in to her neurotic worries.The fabricators im agination, however, has been aroused. She mentions that she enjoys picturing people on the walkways most the house and that bottom unendingly discourages such fantasies. She also signifys back to her childhood, when she was able to work herself into a terror by imagining things in the dark. As she describes the bedroom, which she sound outs must founder been a nursery for young children, she points out that the paper is part off the wall in spots, there are scratches and gouges in the floor, and the furniture is heavy and intractable in place.Just as she begins to see a strange sub- expression behind the main design of the wallpaper, her writing is interrupted again, this time by prats sister, Jennie, who is acting as housekeeper and nurse for the teller. As the Fourth of July passes, the vote counter reports that her family has just visited, leaving her more tired than ever. John threatens to send her to Weir Mitchell, the real-life atomic number 101 under whose care Gi lman had a nervous breakdown. The cashier is unsocial most of the time and says that she has function almost fond of the wallpaper and that attempting to see out its kind has become her primary entertainment.As her obsession grows, the sub-pattern of the wallpaper becomes clearer. It begins to resemble a woman asymmetrical down and creeping behind the main pattern, which looks like the forbid of a cage. Whenever the cashier tries to discuss leaving the house, John work ups light of her concerns, in effect silencing her. Each time he does so, her disgusted fascination with the paper grows. Soon the wallpaper dominates the cashiers imagination. She becomes possessive and secretive, hiding her interest in the paper and making sure no one else examines it so that she preempt find it out on her own.At one point, she startles Jennie, who had been touching the wallpaper and who mentions that she had arrange yellow stains on their clothes. Mistaking the tellers fixation for tra nquility, John designates she is improving. But she sleeps less and less and is convinced that she can smell the paper all over the house, even outside. She discovers a strange smudge mark on the paper, running all beloved the room, as if it had been rubbed by mortal creep against the wall. The sub-pattern now clearly resembles a woman who is trying to dispirit out from behind the main pattern.The storyteller sees her shaking the bars at night and creeping around during the day, when the woman is able to bunk briefly. The teller mentions that she, too, creeps around at times. She suspects that John and Jennie are aware of her obsession, and she resolves to smash the paper once and for all, peeling much of it off during the night. The next day she manages to be alone and goes into something of a frenzy, biting and tearing at the paper in order to free the detain woman, whom she sees struggling from intimate the pattern.By the end, the cashier is hopelessly insane, convinc ed that there are many creeping women around and that she herself has come out of the wallpaperthat she herself is the trapped woman. She creeps endlessly around the room, smudging the wallpaper as she goes. When John breaks into the locked room and sees the full horror of the situation, he faints in the doorway, so that the narrator has to creep over him e real time Character List The Narrator A young, upper-middle-class woman, newly espouse and a mother, who is undergoing care for impression.The narratorwhose name may or may not be Janeis highly imaginative and a natural storyteller, though her doctors believe she has a slight hysterical tendency. The story is told in the course of instruction of her secret diary, in which she records her thoughts as her obsession with the wallpaper grows. Read an in-depth synopsis of The Narrator. John The narrators husband and her physician. John restricts her behavior as part of her treatment. Unlike his imaginative wife, John is extr emely practical, preferring facts and figures to fancy, at which he scoffs openly. He seems to love his wife, but he does not understand the negative effect his treatment has on her. Read an in-depth analysis of John. Jennie Johns sister. Jennie acts as housekeeper for the couple. Her presence and her contentment with a domestic role heighten the narrators feelings of guilt over her own inability to act as a traditional wife and mother. Jennie seems, at times, to suspect that the narrator is more troubled than she lets on. Analysis of Major Characters The NarratorThe narrator of The Yellow cover is a paradox as she loses touch with the outer world, she comes to a great understanding of the inner reality of her life. This inner/outer split is life-and-death to understanding the nature of the narrators suffering. At every point, she is face up with kindreds, objects, and situations that seem innocent and natural but that are actually instead bizarre and even oppressive. In a sense, the plot of The Yellow Wallpaper is the narrators attempt to avoid acknowledging the extent to which her external situation stifles her inner impulses.From the starting signal, we see that the narrator is an imaginative, highly expressive woman. She remembers terrifying herself with imaginary number nighttime monsters as a child, and she enjoys the notion that the house they sire taken is haunted. Yet as part of her cure, her husband forbids her to exercise her imagination in any way. Both her reason and her emotions rebel at this treatment, and she turns her imagination onto ostensibly neutral objectsthe house and the wallpaperin an attempt to ignore her maturement frustration.Her negative feelings color her description of her surroundings, making them seem uncanny and sinister, and she becomes fixated on the wallpaper. As the narrator sinks further into her inner fascination with the wallpaper, she becomes progressively more dissociated from her day-to-day life. This p rocess of dissociation begins when the story does, at the very moment she decides to keep a secret diary as a abatement to her mind. From that point, her true thoughts are hidden from the outer world, and the narrator begins to slip into a fantasy world in which the nature of her situation is made clear in symbolic terms.Gilman shows us this division in the narrators consciousness by having the narrator puzzle over effects in the world that she herself has caused. For example, the narrator doesnt immediately understand that the yellow stains on her clothing and the long smootch on the wallpaper are connected. Similarly, the narrator fights the recognition that the predicament of the woman in the wallpaper is a symbolic meter reading of her own situation. At first she even disapproves of the womans efforts to leave out and intends to tie her up. When the narrator at last identifies herself with the woman trapped in the wallpaper, she is able to see that other women are hale to creep and hide behind the domestic patterns of their lives, and that she herself is the one in need of rescue. The horror of this story is that the narrator must lose herself to understand herself. She has untangled the pattern of her life, but she has torn herself apart in ca-cating free of it. An odd detail at the end of the story reveals how much the narrator has sacrificed. During her final split from reality, the narrator says, Ive got out at last, in spite of you and Jane. Who is this Jane? Some critics claim Jane is a misprint for Jennie,the sister-in-law. It is more belike, however, that Jane is the name of the unnamed narrator, who has been a fantastic to herself and her jailers. Now she is horribly free of the constraints of her marriage, her society, and her own efforts to smother her mind. John though John seems like the obvious villain of The Yellow Wallpaper, the story does not allow us to see him as wholly evil. Johns treatment of the narrators depression goes te rribly wrong, but in all likelihood he was trying to help her, not make her worse.The real problem with John is the all-encompassing power he has in his coincided role as the narrators husband and doctor. John is so sure that he knows whats best for his wife that he disregards her own opinion of the matter, forcing her to hide her true feelings. He consistently patronizes her. He calls her a blessed little goose and vetoes her smallest wishes, such as when he refuses to switch bedrooms so as not to overindulge her fancies. Further, his dry, clinical rationality renders him uniquely unsuited to understand his imaginative wife.He does not intend to victimize her, but his ignorance about what she really needs in the long run proves dangerous. John knows his wife only superficially. He sees the outer pattern but misses the trapped, struggling woman inside. This ignorance is why John is no mere cardboard villain. He cares for his wife, but the unequal relationship in which they fin d themselves prevents him from truly understanding her and her problems. By treating her as a case or a wife and not as a person with a will of her own, he helps destroy her, which is the last thing he wants.That John has been destroyed by this imprisoning relationship is made clear by the storys chilling finale. subsequently breaking in on his insane wife, John faints in shock and goes unrecognized by his wife, who calls him that man and complains about having to creep over him as she makes her way along the wall. Themes, Motifs, and Symbols Themes The Subordination of Women in Marriage In The Yellow Wallpaper, Gilman uses the conventions of the psychological horror tale to critique the position of women within the institution of marriage, in particular as practiced by the respectableclasses of her time.When the story was first published, most proof contributors took it as a scary tale about a woman in an extreme severalise of consciousnessa gripping, unreassuring entertainmen t, but little more. After its rediscovery in the twentieth century, however, readings of the story stomach become more complex. For Gilman, the conventional 19th-century middle-class marriage, with its rigid distinction amongst the domestic functions of the female and the active work of the male, ensured that women remained second-class citizens.The story reveals that this sexuality division had the effect of keeping women in a childish province of ignorance and preventing their full development. Johns assumption of his own superior intelligence and maturity leads him to misjudge, patronize, and dominate his wife, all in the name of helping her. The narrator is reduced to acting like a cross, petulant child, uneffective to stand up for herself without seeming unreasonable or disloyal. The narrator has no say in even the smallest details of her life, and she retreats into her obsessive fantasy, the only place she can retain some control and exercise the power of her mind.The I mportance of Self-Expression pic The genial constraints placed upon the narrator, even more so than the physical ones, are what ultimately drive her insane. She is forced to hide her anxieties and fears in order to preserve the frontage of a happy marriage and to make it seem as though she is winning the fight against her depression. From the beginning, the most intolerable aspect of her treatment is the domineering silence and idleness of the resting cure. She is forced to become completely passive, forbidden from use her mind in any way.Writing is oddly off limits, and John warns her some(prenominal) times that she must use her self-control to rein in her imagination, which he fears will run away with her. Of course, the narrators ultimate dementia is a product of the repression of her imaginative power, not the expression of it. She is constantly zest for an emotional and intellectual outlet, even going so far as to keep a secret journal, which she describes more than onc e as a relief to her mind. For Gilman, a mind that is kept in a accede of forced inactivity is doomed to self-destruction.The Evils of the Resting Cure As someone who almost was destroyed by S. Weir Mitchells resting cure for depression, it is not surprising that Gilman structured her story as an attack on this ineffective and cruel course of treatment. The Yellow Wallpaper is an illustration of the way a mind that is already plagued with anxiety can deteriorate and begin to prey on itself when it is forced into inactivity and kept from healthy work. To his credit, Mitchell, who is mentioned by name in the story, took Gilmans criticism to heart and abandoned the resting cure. Beyond the specific technique set forth in the story, Gilman fashion to criticize any constellation of medical care that ignores the concerns of the patient, considering her only as a passive object of treatment. The conjunctive amid a womans control in the station and her subordination in a doctor/pati ent relationship is clearJohn is, after all, the narrators husband and doctor. Gilman implies that both forms of authority can be easily abused, even when the husband or doctor means to help.All too often, the women who are the silent subjects of this authority are infantilized, or worse. Motifs satire Almost every aspect of The Yellow Wallpaper is ironic in some way. banter is a way of using words to drive multiple levels of meaning that contrast with or complicate one other. In verbal jeering, words are frequently used to convey the conduct resistance of their literal meaning, such as when one person responds to anothers mistake by saying nice work. (Sarcasmwhich this example embodiesis a form of verbal irony. In her journal, the narrator uses verbal irony often, oddly in reference to her husband John laughs at me, of course, but one expects that in marriage. Obviously, one expects no such thing, at least not in a healthy marriage. Later, she says, I am glad my case is n ot serious, at a point when it is clear that she is concerned that her case is very serious indeed. Dramatic irony occurs when there is a contrast between the reviewers knowledge and the knowledge of the consultations in the work.Dramatic irony is used extensively in The Yellow Wallpaper. For example, when the narrator first describes the bedroom John has chosen for them, she attributes the rooms bizarre featuresthe rings and things in the walls, the nailed-down furniture, the bars on the windows, and the torn wallpaperto the fact that it must give once been used as a nursery. Even this early in the story, the reader sees that there is an equally plausible explanation for these details the room had been used to house an insane person.Another example is when the narrator assumes that Jennie shares her interest in the wallpaper, while it is clear that Jennie is only now noticing the source of the yellow stains on their clothing. The effect intensifies toward the end of the story, a s the narrator sinks further into her fantasy and the reader remains able to see her actions from theoutside. By the time the narrator full identifies with the trapped woman she sees in the wallpaper, the reader can appreciate the narrators experience from her point of view as well as Johns shock at what he sees when he breaks down the door to the bedroom.Situational irony refers to moments when a characters actions have the opposite of their intended effect. For example, Johns course of treatment backfires, worsening the depression he was trying to cure and actually driving his wife insane. Similarly, there is a deep irony in the way the narrators fate develops. She gains a kind of power and insight only by losing what we would call her self-control and reason. The Journal An informal work of fiction takes the form of letters between characters. The Yellow Wallpaper is a kind of epistolary story, in which the narrator writes to herself.Gilman uses this technique to show the narr ators capitulation into madness both subjectively and objectivelythat is, from both the inside and the outside. Had Gilman told her story in traditional first-person narration, reporting events from inside the narrators head, the reader would never know exactly what to think a woman inside the wallpaper might seem to actually exist. Had Gilman told the story from an objective, third-person point of view, without reveal the narrators thoughts, the social and political symbolism of the story would have been obscured.As it is, the reader must decipher the ambiguity of the story, just as the narrator must attempt to decipher the bewildering story of her life and the bizarre patterns of the wallpaper. Gilman also uses the journal to give the story an in deform intimacy and immediacy, especially in those moments when the narrative is interrupted by the approach of John or Jennie. These interruptions utterly illustrate the constraints placed on the narrator by authority figures who wei ghtlift her not to think about hercondition. Symbols The Wallpaper The Yellow Wallpaper is set by the narrators sense that the wallpaper is a text she must interpret, that it symbolizes something that affects her directly. Accordingly, the wallpaper develops its symbolism throughout the story. At first it seems nevertheless unpleasant it is ripped, soiled, and an unclean yellow. The worst part is the ostensibly formless pattern, which fascinates the narrator as she attempts to figure out how it is organized. After staring at the paper for hours, she sees a ghostly sub-pattern behind the main pattern, visible only in certain light.Eventually, the sub-pattern comes into focus as a desperate woman, constantly crawling and stooping, looking for an escape from behind the main pattern, which has come to resemble the bars of a cage. The narrator sees this cage as festooned with the heads of many women, all of whom were throttle as they tried to escape. Clearly, the wallpaper represent s the structure of family, medicine, and tradition in which the narrator finds herself trapped. Wallpaper is domestic and humble, and Gilman skillfully uses this nightmarish, hideous paper as a symbol of the domestic life that traps so many women.Important Quotations Explained 1. If a physician of high standing, and ones own husband, assures friends and relatives that there is really nothing the matter with one but maverick nervous depressiona slight hysterical tendencywhat is one to do? . . . So I take phosphates or phosphiteswhichever it is, and tonics, and journeys, and air, and exercise, and am short forbidden to work until I am well again. Personally, I dissent with their ideas . . . history for Quotation 1 In this passage, which appears near the beginning of the story, the main elements of the narrators plight are present.The powerful, authoritative personas of her husband, her family, and the medical institution urge her to be passive. Her own conviction, however, is that what she needs is precisely the oppositeactivity and stimulation. From the outset, her opinions carry little weight. Personally, she disagrees with her treatment, but she has no power to change the situation. Gilman also begins to characterize the narrator here. The perplexity over phosphates or phosphites is in character for someone who is not particularly interested in factual accuracy.And the sudden rhythm of the sentences, often mixed-up into one-line paragraphs, helps evoke the hurried writing of the narrator in her secret journal, as well as the agitated state of her mind. abutting 2. I sometimes fancy that in my condition if I had less opposition and more society and stimulusbut John says the very worst thing I can do is think about my condition, and I admit it endlessly makes me feel severeness. So I will let it alone and talk about the house. Explanation for Quotation 2 This section appears near the beginning of the story, and it helps characterize both the narr ators dilemma and the narrator herself. Notably, the narrator interrupts her own train of thought by recalling Johns instructions. Gilman shows how the narrator has internalized her husbands authority to the point that she practically hears his voice in her head, telling her what to think. Even so, she cannot help but feel the way she does, and so the move she makes at the end focus on the house instead of her situationmarks the beginning of her slide into obsession and madness.This mental struggle, this desperate attempt not to think about her unhappiness, makes her project her feelings onto her surroundings, especially the wallpaper, which becomes a symbolic image of her condition. The fetch on words here is typical of Gilmans consistent use of irony throughout the story. She feels bad whenever she thinks about hercondition, that is, about both her depression and her condition in general within her oppressive marriage. Close 3. on that point are things in that paper which nobody knows but me, or ever will. Behind that outside pattern the dim shapes get clearer every day.It is always the same shape, only very numerous. And it is like a woman stooping down and creeping about behind that pattern. I dont like it a bit. I wonderI begin to thinkI wish John would take me away from here Explanation for Quotation 3 just about halfway through the story, the sub-pattern of the wallpaper finally comes into focus. The narrator is being draw further and further into her fantasy, which contains a disturbing loyalty about her life. Gilmans irony is actively at work here the things in the paper are both the ghostly women the narrator sees and the disturbing ideas she is coming to understand.She is at the same time jealous of the secret (nobody knows but me) and stimulate of what it seems to imply. Again the narrator tries to deny her growing insight (the dim shapes get clearer every day), but she is powerless to extricate herself. Small wonder that the woman she sees is always stooping down and creeping about. Like the narrator herself, she is trapped within a suffocating domestic pattern from which no escape is possible. Close 4. Life is very much more exciting now than it used to be. Explanation for Quotation 4 This comment comes just after the expectation in which the narrator catches Jennie touching the paper and resolves that no one else is allowed to figure out the pattern. It captures one of the most distinctive qualities of The Yellow Wallpaper Gilmans bitter, sarcastic sense of humor. Now that the narrator has become hopelessly obsess with the pattern, spending all day and all night thinking about it, life has become more interesting and she is no longer bored. Gilman manages to agree humor and dread in such moments. The comment is funny, but the reader knows that someone who would make such a joke is not well.Indeed, in the section that follows, the narrator casually mentions that she considered burning the house down in order to eliminate the smell of the wallpaper. Close 5. I dont like to look out of the windows eventhere are so many of those creeping women, and they creep so fast. I wonder if they all come out of that wall-paper as I did? Explanation for Quotation 5 Important Quotations Explained 1. If a physician of high standing, and ones own husband, assures friends and relatives that there is really nothing the matter with one but temporary nervous depressiona slight hysterical tendencywhat is one to do? . . So I take phosphates or phosphiteswhichever it is, and tonics, and journeys, and air, and exercise, and am absolutely forbidden to work until I am well again. Personally, I disagree with their ideas . . . Explanation for Quotation 1 In this passage, which appears near the beginning of the story, the main elements of the narrators dilemma are present. The powerful, authoritative voices of her husband, her family, and the medical establishment urge her to be passive. Her own conviction, however, i s that what she needs is precisely the oppositeactivity and stimulation.From the outset, her opinions carry little weight. Personally, she disagrees with her treatment, but she has no power to change the situation. Gilman also begins to characterize the narrator here. The confusion over phosphates or phosphites is in character for someone who is not particularly interested in factual accuracy. And the choppy rhythm of the sentences, often broken into one-line paragraphs, helps evoke the hurried writing of the narrator in her secret journal, as well as the agitated state of her mind. Close . I sometimes fancy that in my condition if I had less opposition and more society and stimulusbut John says the very worst thing I can do is think about my condition, and I confess it always makes me feel bad. So I will let it alone and talk about the house. Explanation for Quotation 2 This section appears near the beginning of the story, and it helps characterize both the narrators dilemma and t he narrator herself. Notably, the narrator interrupts her own train of thought by recalling Johns instructions.Gilman shows how the narrator has internalized her husbands authority to the point that she practically hears his voice in her head, telling her what to think. Even so, she cannot help but feel the way she does, and so the move she makes at the endfocusing on the house instead of her situationmarks the beginning of her slide into obsession and madness. This mental struggle, this desperate attempt not to think about her unhappiness, makes her project her feelings onto her surroundings, especially the wallpaper, which becomes a symbolic image of her condition. The play on words here is typical of Gilmans consistent use of irony throughout the story. She feels bad whenever she thinks about hercondition, that is, about both her depression and her condition in general within her oppressive marriage. Close 3. There are things in that paper which nobody knows but me, or ever will. Behind that outside pattern the dim shapes get clearer every day. It is always the same shape, only very numerous. And it is like a woman stooping down and creeping about behind that pattern. I dont like it a bit. I wonderI begin to thinkI wish John would take me away from here Explanation for Quotation 3 About halfway through the story, the sub-pattern of the wallpaper finally comes into focus. The narrator is being drawn further and further into her fantasy, which contains a disturbing truth about her life. Gilmans irony is actively at work here the things in the paper are both the ghostly women the narrator sees and the disturbing ideas she is coming to understand. She is simultaneously jealous of the secret (nobody knows but me) and frightened of what it seems to imply. Again the narrator tries to deny her growing insight (the dim shapes get clearer every day), but she is powerless to extricate herself.Small wonder that the woman she sees is always stooping down and creeping ab out. Like the narrator herself, she is trapped within a suffocating domestic pattern from which no escape is possible. Close 4. Life is very much more exciting now than it used to be. Explanation for Quotation 4 This comment comes just after the scene in which the narrator catches Jennie touching the paper and resolves that no one else is allowed to figure out the pattern. It captures one of the most distinctive qualities of The Yellow Wallpaper Gilmans bitter, sarcastic sense of humor.Now that the narrator has become hopelessly haunt with the pattern, spending all day and all night thinking about it, life has become more interesting and she is no longer bored. Gilman manages to combine humor and dread in such moments. The comment is funny, but the reader knows that someone who would make such a joke is not well. Indeed, in the section that follows, the narrator casually mentions that she considered burning the house down in order to eliminate the smell of the wallpaper. Close 5. I dont like to look out of the windows eventhere are so many of those creeping women, and they creep so fast.I wonder if they all come out of that wall-paper as I did? Explanation for Quotation 5 In the storys final scene, just before John finally breaks into her room, the narrator has finished tearing off enough of the wallpaper that the woman she saw inside is now freeand the two women have become one. This passage is the exact moment of full identification, when the narrator finally makes the connection she has been avoiding, a connection that the reader has made already. The woman behind the pattern was an image of herselfshe has been the one stooping and creeping. Further, she knows that there are many women just like her, so many that she is afraid to look at them. The point she asks is poignant and complex did they all have to struggle the way I did? Were they trapped within homes that were really prisons? Did they all have to tear their lives up at the roots in order to be free? The narrator, unable to answer these questions, leaves them for another womanor the readerto ponder. Key Facts title The Yellow Wallpaper author Charlotte Perkins Gilman type of work Short story genre Gothic horror tale character study socio-political emblem language English ime and place written 1892, California date of first publication May, 1892 publisher The New England Magazine narrator A mentally troubled young woman, possibly named Jane point of view As the main characters fictional journal, the story is told in strict first-person narration, focusing exclusively on her own thoughts, feelings, and perceptions. Everything that we learn or see in the story is filtered through the narrators shifting consciousness, and since the narrator goes insane over the course of the story, her perception of reality is often completely at odds with that of the other characters. one The narrator is in a state of anxiety for much of the story, with flashes of sarcasm, anger , and desperationa tone Gilman wants the reader to share. tense The story stays close to the narrators thoughts at the moment and is thus mostly in the present tense. setting (time) Late nineteenth century setting (place) America, in a large summer home (or possibly an old asylum), primarily in one bedroom within the house. rotagonist The narrator, a young upper-middle-class woman who is suffering from what is most likely postpartum depression and whose illness gives her insight into her (and other womens) situation in society and in marriage, even as the treatment she undergoes robs her of her sanity. major interlocking The struggle between the narrator and her husband, who is also her doctor, over the nature and treatment of her illness leads to a conflict within the narrators mind between her growing understanding of her own powerlessness and her desire to repress this awareness. ising action The narrator decides to keep a secret journal, in which she describes her forced passivity and expresses her dislike for her bedroom wallpaper, a dislike that gradually intensifies into obsession. flood The narrator completely identifies herself with the woman imprisoned in the wallpaper. falling action The narrator, now completely identified with the woman in the wallpaper,spends her time crawling on all fours around the room. Her husband discovers her and collapses in shock, and she keeps crawling, right over his fallen body. hemes The subordination of women in marriage the importance of self-expression the evils of the Resting Cure motifs Irony the journal symbols The wallpaper foreshadowing The discovery of the teeth marks on the bedstead foreshadows the narrators own insanity and suggests the narrator is not revealing everything about her behavior the first use of the word offensive foreshadows the increasing desperation of the narrators situation and her own eventualcreeping. How to Cite This SparkNote Full Bibliographic Citation MLA SparkNotes Ed itors. SparkNote on The Yellow Wallpaper. SparkNotes. com. SparkNotes LLC. 2006. Web. 2 Apr. 2013. The moolah Manual of Style SparkNotes Editors. SparkNote on The Yellow Wallpaper. SparkNotes LLC. 2006. http//www. sparknotes. com/lit/yellowwallpaper/ (accessed April 12, 2013). APA SparkNotes Editors. (2006). SparkNote on The Yellow Wallpaper. Retrieved April 12, 2013, from http//www. sparknotes. com/lit/yellowwallpaper/ In Text Citation MLA Their conversation is awkward, especially when she mentions Wickham, a subject Darcy clearly wishes to avoid (SparkNotes Editors). APA Their conversation is awkward, especially when she mentions Wickham, a subject Darcy clearly wishes to avoid (SparkNotes Editors, 2006).Footnote The Chicago Manual of Style Chicago requires the use of footnotes, rather than parenthetical citations, in conjunction with a list of works cited when dealing with literature. 1 SparkNotes Editors. SparkNote on The Yellow Wallpaper. SparkNotes LLC. 2006. http//www. sp arknotes. com/lit/yellowwallpaper/ (accessed April 12, 2013). pic enjoy be sure to cite your sources. For more information about what piracy is and how to avoid it, please read our article on The Plagiarism Plague. If you have any questions regarding how to use or include references to SparkNotes in your work, please tell us.